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Setnper  aliqiiid  novi  ex  Africa. 





All    rights    reserved. 

I.  and  R.  court-typography  Charles  Prochaaka,  Teschen. 



Africa,  with  its  wild,  virginal  hunting  fields  and  its  heart 
of  mystery,  that  has  still  to  yield  up  its  secrets  to  the  explorer, 
has  at  all  times  excited  a  lively  interest  in  me. 

Many  of  my  friends  and  acquaintances  have  made  it  the 
scene  of  their  travels  or  the  field  for  their  exertions,  more  than 
one  to  find  there,  alas  an  untimely  grave. 

The  various  reports  having  served  to  strengthen  my  con- 
viction in  the  ultimate  and  supreme  mission  of  the  dark  continent 
as  the  source  from  which  exhausted  Europe  would  draw  that 
vitality  necessary  for  its  future  nourishment,  the  range  of  my 
enquiry  naturally  became  increased,  and  I  missed  no  opportunity 
to  collect  and  note  down  thoroughly  reliable  information. 

Soon  afterwards  it  became  my  duty  to  make  myself 
acquainted  with  African  affairs,  and  I  also  seized  this  occasion 
to  enrich  my  knowledge  and  complete  my  notes. 

And  here  I  cannot  refrain  from  putting  on  record  my  in- 
debtedness, first  and  foremost,  to  my  valued  friend.  Professor 
Dr.  Paulitschke,  Private  Lecturer  at  the  Vienna  University.  It 
is  to  his  clear  and  comprehensive  lectures,  based  upon  concise 
and  intimate  knowledge,  as  well  as  to  the  study  of  the  litera- 
ture recommended  by  him,  that  I  owe  an  accurate  and  reliable 
insight  into  the  social  and  political  relations  prevailing  in  Africa. 

In  my  opinion,  a  general  survey  of  the  African  question 
forms  the   only  true  basis  for   any   further   detailed   knowledge. 



1  therefore  clierish  (he  hope  that  tliis  sliort  compilation  of  the 
chief  points  of  interest  concerning  the  separate  territories  of  Africa, 
as  I  have  endeavored  to  reproduce  tliem  in  tliis  work,  will  be 
of  some  practical  use  at  least  to  those  who  wish  to  obtain  in- 
formation speedily. 

This  work  is  intended  as  a  vade  mevum,  which  should 
partly  serve  to  give  a  general  idea  of, 

1.  Where  the  different  civilised  powers '  of  Europe  have 
taken  a  firm  footing  on  African  soil; 

2.  The  historical  part  played  by  them  in  the  course  of 
time  concerning  the  different  territories  from  which  actual 
or  presumed  rights  may  possibly  be  deduced; 

3.  How  and  by  what  treaties  and  agreements  the  Powers 
concerned  have  decided  upon  their  mutual  frontiers  and 
spheres  of  power. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  method  followed  should  serve  to 
render  the  work  convenient  for  reference.  The  work  may  have 
its  deficiencies ;  but  the  reader,  desiring  to  collect  further  details 
based  upon  more  circumstantial  accounts,  will  at  least  have 
been  set  upon  the  right  path. 

In  the  time  in  which  we  live  events  develop  themselves 
with  astonishing  rapidity.  Nowhere  is  this  more  the  case  than 
in  the  far  Orient,  as  well  as  in  Africa;  so  much  so  that  the 
condition  of  things  prevailing  in  these  remote  countries,  which 
not  long  ago  played  a  comparatively  unimportant  role  in  Euro- 
pean politics,  is  seen  to  be  exerting  an  ever  -  increasing  and 
powerful  influence  upon  the  mutual  relations  of  the  European 

That  the  African  continent  is  portioned  out  amongst  Euro- 
pean nations  is  perfectly  true,  but  the  precise  definition  of 
these  territories,  the  process  of  acquisition  and  securing,  the 
establishment  of  title  deed,  not  to  mention  a  world  of  minor 
question  are  matters  by  no   means  finally  disposed  of  and   are 


destined  to  continue  of  eventful  and  paramount  importance  to 
Africa  as  well  as  to  Europe  for  some  time  to  come. 

Setting  aside  everything  else,  the  proper  significance  of  the 
terms  « Possessed »,  « Occupied  territory »,  «Protectorate»,  « Sphere 
of  interest »,  etc.,  may  be  said  to  be  still  undetermined  in  some 
parts  of  Africa.  We  have  therefore  yet  to  look  forward  to  much 
technical  and  diplomatic  work  connected  with  boundary  com- 
missions, missions  and  the  conclusion  of  treaties. 

In  my  opinion  there  are  still  12  distinct  points  which  will 
shortly  have  to  be  considered,  viz.: 

1.  Egypt  (Turkey,  England,  France,  Italy,  Abyssinia). 

2.  The  Southern  Frontier  of  Tripolis   (France,    Turkey   or 

3.  Morocco,  East  and  South  (France,  Spain). 

4.  Rio  dOro  (Morocco,  France  and  Spain). 

5.  The  Gold  Coast  Hinterland  (France  and  Germany). 

6.  The  Togo  Hinterland  (England,   France   and   Germany). 

7.  The  North- West  of  the  British  River  Niger  possessions. 
(England,  France  and  Germany). 

8.  North  Ubangi  (England,  France  and  Turkey  as  well  as 

9.  Barotseland  (England  and  Portugal). 

10.  Manica  Plain  (England  and  Portugal). 

11.  North  of  British  East-Africa  (France,  England  und  Turkey 
as  well  as  Egypt). 

12.  The  Southern  and  Western  Frontiers  of  French  Somali- 
land  (France,  Italy  and  Abyssinia). 

In  revising  my  notes  before  committing  them  to  print,  I 
have  had  recourse  to  the  best  sources  only,  keeping  the  circum- 
stance consistently  in  view  that  the  lion's  share  of  African 
possessions  falls  necessarily  to  Great  Britain,  whose  historical 
data  I  have  accepted  to  a  large  extent  as  authoritative  and 
final.     These  I   have  not  failed  to  mention  where  they  appeared 


to  be  of  interest  and  importance.  In  making  my  compilation,  I 
liave  lart^ely  used  such  publications  as  «The  Population  of  the 
Eavtli*  by  Supan-Wagner ;  ^Handbook  to  Andrea's  Handatlas,  2nd 
Edition^:  *Tlie  Statesman's  Year-Book»  by  Scott  Keltic;  «Tlie 
Gotha  Diplomatic  and  Statistical  Annual*;  the  White,  Yellow, 
Blue  and  Green  Books;  Annual  Reports;  The  Diplomatic  and 
Consular  Reports ;  Colonial  Reports ;  Foreign-Office  and  Statistical 
Gazette;  Official  Handbooks  for  South  Africa;  the  various 
«Annuaires»;  Rapports  Generaux;  Colonial  Reviews  and  Statistical 
Works  in  all  Languages;  the  numerous  works  of  explorers;  and 
especially  Petermanns  Communications  from  Justus  Perthes' 
Geographical  Institute  in  Gotha;  the  publications  of  the  Geo- 
graphical and  Colonial  Societies  in  London,  Paris,  Berlin  and 
Rome,  the  African  daily  papers,  and  others. 

To  my  knowledge,  there  exists  no  short  and  summarized 
work  concerning  the  African  question.  Having  felt  the  want  of  it 
myself,  I  sought  for  it  in  vain.  I  wish  to  give  my  private  notes 
to  the  public  for  what  they  are  worth,  hoping  that  they  will 
prove  as  useful  to  others  as  to  myself. 

I  have  again  to  express  my  thanks  to  Professor  Dr.  Paulitschke 
for  his  careful  revision  of  the  work  and  for  his  supplementary 
notes,  as  well  as  for  his  valuable  assistance  in  designing  the 
General  Political  Map  of  Africa,  which  I  trust  will  prove  useful 
in  completing  the  information  contained  in  the  second  Edition 
of  my  book  of  reference. 

Dresden,  May,  1897.  Ch.  K. 


Preface Ill  to  VI 

Egypt 1 

Madhi's  Dominion 5 

Tripolis 8 

Tunis 10 

Algiers 12 

Morocco 15 

Spanish  Presidios,  Rio  d'Oro,  Canary  Islands 18 

Madeira,  Azores,  Cape  Verde  Islands 19 

Senegambia 21 

French  Soudan 24 

French  Guinea,  Ivory  Coast 26 

Portugese  Guinea 28 

British  West  African  Possessions 29 

British  Gambia 30 

Sierra  Leone ^^ 

Gold  Coast 31 

Lagos 33 

Liberia 34 

Togoland 35 

Dahomey 36 

Niger  Coast  Protectorate 38 

Niger  Territories 38 

The  Independent  States  of  Central  Soudan 41 

Cameroon '^3 

Spanish  possessions  in  Gulf  of  Guinea  and  on  the  Gaboon 45 

Portugese  possession  in  the  Gulf  of  Guinea 46 

French  Congo 46 

The  Congo  State 49 

Portugese  possession  in  Lower  Guinea 54 

Ascension,  Tristan  da  Cunha,  Walfish  Bay 56 

St.  Helena 57 

German  South  West  Africa ^^ 



Capo  (.'olony 59 

Heohuanulaiul 63 

Khodosia.   Hritish  Zambi'sia 65 

IJritish  Contial  Africa 67 

Urilisb  Central  Africa  i>rotectorato,  Nyassaland 69 

Hasutolaud 70 

Natal 70 

Zululand.  Tongaland 71 

(^nuijjo  KopuMic 72 

South  African  lvO]iublic 73 

rortugoso  Kast   Africa 76 

^ladau'ascar  and  dependencies 78 

Mauritius  and  dependencies 80 

Keunion  and  dejiendencies 81 

The  Coiuores  Islands 81 

Zanzibar 82 

IJennan  Kast  Africa 84 

British  East  Africa 86 

Hritish  Possession  in  Somaliland  and  Sokotra .  89 

French  possession  in  the  Gulf  of  Aden 91 

Italian  possession  in  North  East  Africa 93 

Abyssinia 97 

Geograi»liical  Register 101 


The  introduction  to  tbo  chapters  is  by  geographical  marginal  notes: 

No.  1.  Official  territorial  titles  of  the  respective  countries. 

No.  2.  Frontiers  and  circumference  of  same. 

No.  3.  Surface  in  sijuare  metres  or  square  miles. 

No.  4.  Poi)ulation  (actual  and  relative). 

No.  5.  Divisiou.s  (together  with  districts).  Classification  of  same. 

No.  6.  Possession    (whether   actual   possession,    protectorate    or    sphere    of  influence  and 

extent  of  same). 
No.  7.  History  in  chronological  order. 

No.  8.  Treaties  and  f^pecial  diplomatic  events  (Ambjissadorial  journeys). 
No.  9.  Proposed  regulation  of  frontiers  and  results  obtained. 
No.  10.  Government,  Administration,  Varia. 
A  signifies  that  the  syllable  is  long  and  accented. 
—  signifies  a  long  unaccented  '  a  .short  and  accented  syllable. 


Kemi,  3Iis)\  Aegypten,  J^gypte,  JEgitto.  Official  title. 

The  Wesfeni  FronUer  is  formed  by  tlie  Bay  of  Solum  od  the  Frontiers. 
Mediterranean  Sea,  the  Soutli-East  Frontier  by  Cape  (Ras)  Kasar,  on 
the  Red  Sea,  18"  2'  North  Latitude.  The  South  Frontier  is  formed 
by  the  points  Merawi  and  Debbeh  (18"  30'  North  Latitude),  to 
which  the  Anglo-Egyptiau  Army  has  so  far  confined  its  hne  of  ad- 
vance since  tlie  conquest  of  Dongola  in  the  summer  of  1896.  Tiie 
South- West  Frontier,  starting  from  the  Bay  of  Sohim,  is  regarded  as 
dividing  the  Libyan  Desert  in  such  a  manner  as  to  bring  the  centre 
of  the  Snussija,  (Jarabiib  Oasis)  and  also  the  Oases  of  Farafrah 
and  Dakliel  under  Egyptian  rule.  Owing  to  the  present  unsettled 
state  of  affairs  in  the  Soudan,  the  frontier  towards  the  South-Fast, 
in  the  Nubian  Desert,  is  undefined. 

The  Egyptian  Soudan  embraced  formerly  the  provinces  of  Nubia, 
Sennaar,  Taka.  Kordofan,  Dar  Fur  and  the  territories  on  the  right 
and  left  banks  of  the  Nile,  as  far  as  the  Equatorial  Lakes,  but 
without  definitely  fixed  boundaries  (see  page  5  "The  Mahdi's 
Dominion"  and  page  86   "Imperial  British  Fast  Africa"). 

Superficial  Area:  935,300  sq.  km.,  to  1,300,000  sq.  km.  (1881, 
2,986,900  sq.  km.);  usually  estimated  at  994,300  sq.  km. 

Cultivated  Land:  29,120  sq.  km.  English  official  statements 
give  the  superficial  area  of  P'gypt  to-day  in  round  numbers  as 
400,000  square  miles  (1  square  mile  =  2-5898945  sq.  km, ;  1  sq.  km. 
=  0-3861161  square  mile)  of  which  12,976  miles  were  already 
cultivated  in  the  year  1896. 

Count  KinKky:  "Tho  l)i|iIoinatiKt'8  IfaiKlliook  for  Africa". 


Population.  I'loiu  ail  dfticial  ictuni  made  at  the  beginning  of  May,  1894,  Egypt 

(Siiakim  and  the  Soudan  exchided)  contained  7,739,000  inliabitants 
(110,400  foreigners,  including  8,000  liritish  sohliers).  Tiie  last 
census,  taken  May  ord,  1882,  returned  6,400,000  inhabitants, 
of  whom  90,880  were  foreigners,  an  average  of  about  7  persons  to 
tlie  S(|  km.  Including  the  inhabitants  of  the  Soudiin,  the  total  population 
was  returned  at  not  less  than  16  millions. 

i)ivisi«ms.  Egypt  is  divided  into  2  parts:  (a)  Misr-el-bahri,  which  is  Lower 

Egypt  or  the  Delta;  (h)  El  Said,  or  Upper  Egypt.  These  two  parts  em- 
brace five  governmental  sub-divisions  (Mohafzas):  1.  Suez  Canal  (Suez, 
Port  Said,  Ismailia),  2.  Cairo,  3.  Alexandria,  4.  Rosetta  and  5.  Da- 
mietta,  and  sixteen  Provinces  or  Mudirieh.  These  are  again  subdivided 
into  districts  (Markaz,  Kism),  Avhich  are  formed  out  of  Nahiehs  or  Com- 
munities. The  coast  of  the  Red  Sea,  with  Suakin,  Kosseir,  El  Arish, 
and  the  Sinai  Peninsula,  is  included  in  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Suez  Canal. 

Possession.  The  wliole   country    is  a   tributary    state    of  Turkey.     For  the 

"Sphere  of  Interest"   of  Turkey,  see  page  8. 

Hi-t..ry.  From  3892-525  R.  C.  an  independent  nation. 

„     525-333  R.  C.  subject  to  Persia. 

„     333-323  R.  C.  subject  to  Greece  (Alexander  the  Great). 
„     323-30  R.  C.  period  of  the  Ptolema^ans. 
„     30  R.  C— 638  A.  D.  subject  to  Rome. 
„     638  A.  1). — 1517  A.  D.  Mohammedan  Dynasties. 

1517  A.  D.  Egypt  was  conquered  by  the  Turkish  Sultan,  Selim  T, 
and  turned  into  a  Turkish  Pashalic. 

The  last  Egyptian  monarch,  Mutawakkil,  conferred  upon  Selim  I. 
the  dignity  of  a  Chalifa. 

1798,  July  1st,  Napoleon  Ruonaparte  entered  and  took  posses- 
sion of  the  country.    May  1799,    Upper  Egypt,    was  conquered    by 

the  French,  who  held  Egypt  till  September  1801,  when  they  evacuated 
it,  and  the  Turks  again  took  possession. 

From  1801  to  1811,  Egypt  was  under  the  actual  rule  of  about 
500  Mamaluke  princes. 

1805,  August  3rd,  Mohammed  Ali  in  Egypt. 

1806,  Mohammed  Ali  established  as  Governor,  and  in  1811  as 
absolute  ruler.  1819  and  following  years,  Mohammed  Ali  conquers 
Nubia  and  Sennaar  (1820—1825)  and  Kordofan  (1821). 

By  the  Hattisherif  of  February  13th,  1841,  Mohammed  Ali  ac- 
quires hereditary  succession. 

1848,  Investiture  of  Ibrahim  Pasha,  Mohammed  All's  stepson. 

1849,  August  2nd,  Death  of  Mohammed  All,  who  had  become 

1849-1853,  Abbas  Pasha,  Khedive. 

1854—1863,  Said  Pasha,  Khedive. 

1863,  January  2nd,  Ismail  Pasha  ascends  the  Throne. 

1866,  By  the  Firman  of  May  27th,  Ismail  Pasha  receives  the 
rank  and  title  of  Khidewi-Misr,  i.  e.  "Viceroy  of  Egypt",  and 
the  right  of  "direct  descent  from  the  father  to  the  eldest  son",  in 
consideration  of  a  yearly  tribute  of  575,000  I.  (Egyptian). 

1869,  November  16th:  Opening  of  the  Suez  Canal. 

1873,  The  Firman  of  June  8th,  confers  upon  the  Khedive  the 
right  of  coinage  and  of  the  issue  of  loans,  the  right  to  inde- 
pendent administration  of  Justice,  to  conclude  treaties  with  Foreign 
Powers,  and  to  form  an  army  of  30,000  men.  The  tribute  to  be 
raised  to  669,175  I.  (Egyptian). 

1874,  Conquest  of  Bar  Fur  by  Siber  Pasha. 

1875,  The  "Tribunaux  mixtes"  take  the  place  of  consular  juris- 

1875,  Conquest  of  the  Somali  Coast  and  Ilarar. 

1876,  April,  Introduction  of  the  "Caisse  de  la  Dette  Publiquc". 
1879,  June  26th,  Ismail  Pasha  is  deposed.  (Died  March,  12th  1895, 

at  Constantinople)  and  is  succeeded  by  his  son  Taufyk, 

1879,  Novoinbt'i-  UMli.  Kiiy])t  by  Kliedival  Decree  put  under 
the  genei-al  control  of  Fiance  and  England  (rescinded  by  Kliedival 
Decree  of  January    IStb.   1S83). 

1S81,  February  1st,  Rebellion  under  Colonel  Ahmed  Arabi  Dey 
in   Cairo. 

1881,  Sunniier,   The  Mahdi's   lirst   appearance   in    the  Soudan. 

1882,  iMay  20tli,  Ibitish  and  French  Squadrons  before 

1882,  June  8th,  A  Turkish  Special-Envoy  sent  to  Egypt. 

1882.  duly  lltli  and  12tli,  Bombardment  of  Alexandria,  before 
the  commencement  of  which  the  French  withdraw. 

1882,  September  DUh,  Dattle  of  Tel-el-Kebir :  defeat  of  Arabi 


1882,  November  5th,  Mr.  Gladstone's  declaration  in  the  House 
of  Commons  that  English  troops  would  remain  in  Egypt  to  maintain 
order.  Lord  Dufferin  had  already  been  sent  to  Cairo,  October  31st, 
1882.    (British  Occupation.) 

1883,  January  18th,  Khedival  Decree  regarding  the  nomination 
of  a  British  Financial  adviser  ("without  whose  concurrence  no 
financial  decision  can  be  taken"). 

1883,  November  3rd,  Hicks  Pasha's  Army  annihilated  by  the 
Mahdi  near  Kashgil.  FA  Obeid,  the  Capital  of  Kordofan,  falls  into 
the  hands  of  the  Mahdists. 

1884,  June,  The  Mahdi's  troops  conquer  Nubia  as  far  as 
Berber,  after  Baker  Pasha's  defeat  by  Osman  Digna  near  El  Teb 
on  February  4th,   1884. 

1885,  January  26th,  Fallof  Khartoum  and  death  of  General  Gordon. 
1885,   May  26th,    Evacuation    of   Harar.    —    December   24th, 

Ghasi  Mukhtar  Pasha  sent  to  Egypt. 

1888,  December  5th,  Emin  Pasha  leaves  the  Equatorial  Province 
with  H.  M.  Stanley. 

1892,  January  7th,  Death  of  the  Khedive  Taufyk,  who  is 
succeeded  by  his  son  Abbas  II  Hilmi. 

1894,  April,  Appointment  of  Nubar  Pasha's  Ministry. 

1896,  May,  The  expedition  against  the  ^Nlahdi  begins  with  an 
advance  on  and  the  conquest  of  Dongola,  which  is  subsequently 
divided  into  two  Mudirieh. 

Capital:   Cairo,  576,4:00  inhabitants  (1896).  Varia. 

The  Mahdi's  Dominion. 

Known  in  Europe  as  the  Egyptian  Soudan,    and    in  Egypt  as  Official  title. 
Beled-es-Siidan  or  Mahdyja. 

The  territory  occupied  by  the  followers  of  the  Mahdi  and  his  Frontier, 
successors  (Dervishes)  embraces  the  former  "Egyptian  Soudan".  It 
stretches  from  Merawi  on  the  Nile  (18"  30'  North  Latitude)  to  about 
10°  North  Latitude,  where  the  British  Sphere  of  Interest  begins  (see 
under  heading,  "Imperial  British  East  Africa"),  and  towards  the 
West  almost  to  23''  East  Longitude  of  Greenwich  as  far  as  the 
East  Side  of  the  independent  Sultanate  of  Wadai.  In  the  East  it 
extends  to  the  foot  of  the  Abyssinian  mountains,  without  any 
clearly  defined  boundary  marks. 

The  superficial  area  of  the  Mahdi's  Dominion  cannot  be  exactly  Area, 
defined ;  it  may  be  equal  to  that  of  the  Egypt  of  to  day,  but  cer- 
tainly does  not  surpass  it.  The  one  million  square  miles  given  by 
the  British  authorities  as  its  extent  should  probably  be  reduced  to 
one  half,  as  their  figures  would  include  the  territories  of  the 
Upper  Nile,    which    now  belong    to   the  British  Sphere  of  Interest. 

The    number    of    inhabitants    in   the    Egyptian    Soudan    has    Population, 
been    formerly    estimated    —    for    instance   in    1877    —    at    about 
11,800,000    inhabitants.      These    figures    have    been   confirmed    by 

IM\  i^ioii- 

Britisli  authorities,  but  it  is  now  i^a^norally  acknowledged  tliat  three 
tiftlis  of  the  population  iiave  since  perislied  under  tlie  rule  of  Chalifa 
Abihillahi.  I'lie  Mahdis  Dominion  therefore  contains  probably  little 
nu) re  than  8''^  millions,  viz:  1  million  in  Nubia,  4  millions  in  Dar 
Fur,  and  800,000  in  KonlolVin,  the  rest  being  distributed  over  the 
remaijiing  territories. 

Lower  Nubia,  I'pper  Nubia,  with  Senaar  (Dschesirah)  and  Taka, 
Kordofan,  Takale  and  Dar  l''ur.  Only  a  very  suiall  part  of  the  Bahr 
el-Ghasal.  Dar  Fertit  and  Dar  IJanda  districts  obey  the  Chalifa,  viz:  on 
the  r>ahr  el-Arab,  and  on  tlie  right  bank  of  the  Nile  towards  Lado. 

I'oss.'SMuii.  pij^.  ^vinjie  of  this  territory  may  be  considered  as  actual  posses- 

sion ;  although  the  district  of  Bahr  el-Ghasal  is  virtually  territory 
invaded  by  the  Dervishes. 

The  Sultan  of  Turkey  still  lawfully  claims  the  territory  as  an 
integral  part  of  his  dominion. 

History.  1881,  First  appearance  of  the  Nubian,  Muhammed  Ahmed,  from 

Dongola  as  the  Malidi  (the  prophet  promised  by  Mussulman  Tradition 
and  prophesied  by  Mohammed  to  reforui  and  restore  the  Mussulman 
Faith  to  power  after  a  lapse  of  1300  years). 

1882,  In  Sennaar  the  insurrection  was  subdued  by  Abd-el- 
Kader,  but  Dshesirah  soon  afterwards  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Mahdi. 

1883,  (January),  The  Mahdi's  followers  storm  El  Obeid,  the 
Capital  of  Kordofan. 

1883,  November  3rd,  Hicks  Pasha  defeated  by  the  Mahdi  near 
Kashgil  and  his  army  anniliilated. 

1884,  February,  General  Graham  defeats  Osmau  Digna  at  Teb 
and  Tamaneb.  —  3rd  of  June.  Treaty  by  which  the  Bogo  territories 
are  ceded  to  Al)yssinia. 

1884,  June,  Death  of  the  Mahdi  and  accession  of  the  Chalifa 
Abdullahi,  who  was  to  be  succeeded  by  two  other  Chaliftis  nominated 
by  the  Mahdi,  after  which  the  descendants  of  Abdullalii  were  to 
have  the  right  to  the  throne. 

1885,  January  26th,  The  Chalifa  AbtluUahi  takes  Khartoum, 
the  Capital  of  the  Egyptian  Soudan.  The  attempted  relief  of  the 
town  by  the  British  (Battles  of  Abu  Klea  and  Gubat)  fails,  the 
expedition  arriving  too  late  to  save  Gordon  Pasha,  who  had  been 
killed  in  the  street  fight. 

1885,  December,  Victory  of  the  English  and  Egyptians  at  Kobe. 
—  June  80th,  The  Sultan  of  Turkey  declares  the  Soudan  to  be 
Turkish  possession. 

1888,  December,  General  GreenfelPs  victory  over  Osman  Digna 
near  Handiib. 

1891,  P'ebruary  18th,  England  reconquers  Tokar. 

1893,  December  21st,    General  Baratieri's  victory  at  Agordat. 

1894,  May,  Anglo-Egyptian  campaign  against  the  Mahdi's 
Dominion.     Battle  of  El  Teb.     Conquest  of  Dongola. 

1894,  July  17th,  The  Italians  take  Kassala. 

The  Capital  and  Residence  of  the  Clialifa  is  Omdurman  on  the        Varia. 
White  Nile   which  contains  about  40,000  inhabitants.    Khartoum  is 
abandoned.  The  present  ruler  over  the  Mahdi's  Dominion,  Abdullahi 
Chalifet  es-Sadik,    reigns  as  Chalifa  or  Lieutenant  Governor   of  the 
Mahdi,  and  therefore  bears  the  title  of  Chalifa  el-Mahdi. 


Taralmlus.     (Ottoman  title  of  the  Vilajet) ;   Tripoli.  oiiioiai  title. 

The  Western  Frontier  begins  near  Ras  Tadjer  on  the  coast,  32  km      FrontitMs. 
East  of  the  fort  and  of  Cape  El  Biban,   and  extends  in  a  curve  open 
to  the  East,  through  the  Erg  towards  Ghadames,  and  thence  through 
the  district    of  tlie   Tuareg  Asgar  or  Asdscher    towards  Ederi,    and 
South-West   to  Ghat.     The  Oases  Ghadames  and  Ghat   thus  belong 

to  Tripoli  ;ni(l  ni.iiiitaiii  Ottoinini  garrisons.  The  Softfh  FroiiUcr 
extends  linciudinii  tlio  Oasis  I'Vz/aii).  tVom  (tIuU  across  tlie  Oasis 
Tegvri.  rxcliKiiiiL^-  tlic  KiitVa  Oases,  wliere  no  Turkish  t,rooi)S  are 
vi't  uarrisoiu'd.  The  ijisl  l-'roiilicr  extends  West  of  tlie  Kufra 
group  <d"  Oases  IVoiu  tlie  South  Northwards  to  Jarahuh,  wliich 
heh>ngs  to  Kgypt,  and  reaches  the  IMediterranean  Sea  at  tlie  Gulf 
of  Scduiu  near  Ras  el-kunais. 

Aiva.  Tiie  supcrtirial  arm  of  the  country  kno^Yn  as  Tripoli  is  between 

1.008.000  sq.  km.  and!  1,213,400  sq.  km.  (898,738  s(iuare  miles 
according  to  British  estimates),  of  which  the  greater  part  is  unculti- 
vated, and  belongs  properly  speaking  to  the  Sahara  and  Lybian  Deserts. 

papulation.  Fopulaiiiui:    1,300,000    (according   to    estimates);    giving    one 

person  to  the  sq.  km  Of  these  800,000  live  in  Tripoli  itself, 
(100,000  in  Fezzan,  800,000  iu  Barka),  and  500,000  in  Benghasi. 
The  number  of  foreigners  (Europeans)  has  only  been  estimated  in 
the  town  of  Tripoli;  in  1896  they  numbered  ()00  Italians,  20 
Frenchmen,  20  Englishmen,  2  Germans,  1  Swiss,  and  numerous 

Divirsions.  The  country  is  divided  into  two  administrative  districts,  the  Vilajet 

Tripolis  with  the  Tripolitan  states  (the  western  portion),  the  Oases 
Ghadames,  and  Fezzan,  together  with  Sella  and  Sokna  and  the 
Mutissaferat  Benghasi,  to  which  the  regions  of  Barka  or  Cyrenaika 
and  the  Audshila  and  Dshalo  Oases  belong. 

Possession.  The  whole  state  forms  tlie  actnal  and  nudisputed  possession  of 

Turkey.  The  Western  part  of  the  Lybian  Desert  and  the  Eastern 
part  of  the  Sahara,  with  the  Taiserbo,  Buseima  and  Kebabo  (Kufra) 
Oases,  the  districts  Tibesti  or  Tu,  Wanjanga,  Borku,  r>odele,  Ennedi, 
the  Kawar  Oasis,  the  district  Kanem  and  the  Sultanate  Wadai,  to 
which  the  larger  part  of  the  former  Baghirmi  country  is 
now  tributary,  are  considered  as  a  sort  of  international  Sphere  of 
Interest  of  the  Ottoman    Empire.     I1ie    southern  part   of  Baghirmi 

however  is  claimed  by  France  as  belonging  to  its  Sphere  of  Interest 
in  Nortli  Ubangi.  This  Ottoman  Sphere  of  Interest  is  bounded  on 
the  West  by  the  caravan  route  from  Kuka  (Bornu)  to  Murzuq  (Fezzan), 
on  the  South  by  Tsad-Lake,  and  about  tlie  12*^  North  Latitude, 
on  tlie  East  by  the  States  belonging  to  the  Mahdi's  Empire,  Dar 
Fur,  Kordofan,  and  West  Nubia,  as  well  as  by  Egypt.  The  whole  of 
the  ti-ade  of  this  immense  territory  is  chiefly  directed  towards  Tripoli 
and  Benghasi,  and  only  a  very  small  part  to  Egypt  and  the  dominion 
of  the  Chalif  of  Omderman. 

Phoenician  and  Carthaginian  Government;    a  flourishing  Greek      History. 
Government    in    Cyrenaika   also.     From   146  B.   C.  Roman  govern- 
ment, later  that  of  Byzantium.    In  the  7th  and  8th  Centuries  A.  D. 
conquered  by  the  Arabs.     For  a  short  time  a  dependency  of  Sicily 
and  Malta,  then  of  Spain   under  Charles  V. 

1551,  The  Turks  conquer  the  Land. 

1714,  Ahmed  Caramanli  Pasha  makes  Tripoli  entirely  indepen- 
dent of  tlie  Porte,  establishes  the  Dynasty  of  Caramanli,  and  con- 
quers the  Fezzan  Oasis  with  the  town  Murzuq.  From  1720,  however, 
a  tribute  is  paid  to  Turkey. 

1825,  The  Sardinian  ships  ^'Commercio'^  "Tritonc",  "Maria 
Cristina",  and  "Nereide"  i)ombard  the  town  Tripoli  under  Captain 
Sivori,  as  Jussuf  Pasha,  the  last  Caramanli,  had  demanded  tribute 
from  Sardinia. 

18;-^5,  Tripoli  once  more  becomes  an  exclusivly  Turkish  possession, 
the  Turks  abolishing  native  government. 

The  country  is  (/overned  direct  from  Comtantinople.  France  has  ^'aria. 
repeatedly  demanded  that  the  towns  Ghadames  and  Ghat,  where 
there  are  again  Ottoman  garrisons,  should  be  yielded  up  to  her.  The 
Porte  has  not  tioubled  to  take  any  steps  in  the  matter.  —  Italian 
achievement:  —  Italian  schools  have  existed  in  Tripoli  since  1884. 
They    were    reformed    and    enlarged    in    1888    by    Crispi.    (189G: 

Count  Kinsky:  "Tlic  Diiiloinatist's  H.iiulbonk  for  Africa".  ^ 


Chililiviis  Institute:  120  cliildron :  Girl's  school:  200  cliildron;  Scuola 
tecnic'o  lomnuMciiilo :   1^;")   i)iii)ils.) 

Tliero   aiv    about   ten    important   Italian    connnorcial    houses   in 
tlie  c'ountrv. 

Cnpital:    Tripoli.  ;\0  to  35,000  inhabitants. 


uffiriai  title.  Tunlsle  (French),  Timisis,  AfriUjJa  (Turkish). 

Front i. -IS.  The  Westcm  Frontier,  beginning  at  Roux  (Cape  Iloux)  situated  on 

the  sea-coast  East  of  La  Calle,  runs  in  a  Southerly  direction  towards 
Tehessa,  and  crosses  the  Sliott  Ghars.  From  this  point  the  boundary- 
line  in  the  Sahara  is  taken  as  running  to  the  South  of  the  Shott 
el-dsherid  in  a  South-Easterly  direction,  till  it  meets  in  the  Sahara 
the  boundary-Une  which  proceeds  from  Ghadames  towards  the  North. 
The  East  frontier  reaches  the  sea-coast  32  km.  East  of  El  Biban 
(Ras  Tadjer).  —  Tunis  thus  embraces  all  the  laud  inside  this  curve 
as  far  as  Cape  Bon. 

Ai.a.  The  miierficial   area    comprises   between    99,600   sq.  km.  and 

118,000  sq.  km  at  the  outside.  By  British  authorities  45,000  square 
miles,  by  Italian  116,000  sq.  km.  and  by  French  129,318  sq.  km. 
are  accepted  as  the  Area. 

Population.  Number    of    inhabitants:    1,500,000,    i.  e.    about    15    persons 

to  the  (446,400  Nomads;  45,000  Jews;  1896:  15,977  French. 
Altogether  110,000  Europeans,  of  which  11,300  men  form  the  army 
of  occupation). 

Divisions.  There  are  22  Qaidate,  or  governmental  subdivisions.  The  South 

is  called  Beled  el-dsherid,  viz:   "Date-Land." 



French  Protectorate    siuce    tlie    22nd  April,   1882,  under    the  Pt.ssession 
rule  of  a  Resident- Minister. 

Phoenician,  Carthaginian,  Roman,  Byzantine,  Vandal  and  Arabian 
Governments.    Conquered  by  Charles  V.  National  Dynasties. 

1575  A.  D.  The  Turks  conquer  the  land. 

1691  A.  D.  The  present  Dynasty  of  the  Ben  Ali  Turki  succeeds 
to  the  government,  which  originates  from  Crete.  The  Bey's  appoint- 
ment as  Regent  is  confirmed  by  the  Sultan,  whose  vassal  he  continues 
to  the  present  day. 

1875,  Convention  between  England  and  Tunis. 

1881,  INIay.  The  French  enter  the  country  and  conclude  with 
the  Bey  Sidi  Muhammed  es-Sadok  the  Treaty  of  Qasr  es-Said  on 
May,   12th  1881,  which  sanctions  their  remaining  in  the  land. 

1882,  April  22nd.   Tunis  placed  under  French  Protectorate. 

1883,  June  8th.  Treaty  with  France  concerning  the  position  of 
Tunis  with  regard  to  international  law. 

1896,  September  28th.  Conclusion  of  three  conventions  with  Italy. 

1897,  January  13tli.  Recognition  by  Spain  of  the  present 
relation  of  Tunis  to  France. 

The  French  "Resident-Minister"  governs  exclusively,  assisted  by 
two  secretaries.  The  Royal  Prerogative  belongs  to  the  Bey,  who, 
according  to  the  Firman  of  the  25th  October  1871,  is  a  vassal  of 
the  Porte,  but  free  from  tribute.  A  ''Bureau  des  affaires  Tuni- 
siennes"  is  established  in  the  French  Foreign  Office.  Since  1884 
French  judges  have  presided  at  the  Consular  Court.  The  head 
of  the  Christian  Religion  is  the  Archbishop  of  Algiers  under  the 
title  of  "Primate  of  Carthagiuia". 

Capital:   Tnnh,  153,000  inhabitants. 






OlfK  ial  litlr 

//  A/ (/eric 






Tlic  frontier  runs  in  tlio  irrsY  from  the  mouth  of  the  Muhlja- 
llivor  across  the  Table-land  of  the  Shotts  into  the  Mediterranean, 
cuts  through  the  Shott  el-Gharbi,  and  extends  almost  to  the  Tuat 
Oasis.  T/tc  South  frontier  is  not  exactly  fixed,  but  runs  parallel 
with  the  30"  Latitude,  as  far  as  the  vicinity  of  Ghadames,  where 
it  joins  the  Tripolitan  and  later  the  Tunisian  Frontiers. 

The  total  mperjickd  area  is  477,913  sq.  km.,  of  which,  however, 
only  818,334  sq.  km.  come  under  the  administration  of  France, 
189,187  sq.  km.  belonging  to  the  Sahara  area.  The  nomads  roving 
about  this  vast  tract  number  50,000.  The  area  of  the  Frencli 
Sahara  is  calculated  as  covering  2,600,000  sq.  km.,  taking  into 
consideration  the  French  Sphere  of  Interest  towards  the  Soudan. 

4,429,421  Inhabitants  (1896),  8  persons  to  the  sq.  km.  (Algiers: 
1,400,000,  Gran:  900,000,  Constantine:  1,700,000).  There  are 
259,729  Frenchmen  in  the  whole  country,  including  the  military 
power,  44,000  Italians  and  3,700,000  Mohammedans. 

Algiers  consists  of  3  provinces :  'Algiers,  Gran,  and  Constantine, 
and  of  the  Gases,  Wargla  and  El-Golea. 

The  country  is  looked  upon  as  an  integral  part  of  France  and 
in  no  sense  as  a  colony.  The  method  of  government,  therefore,  is 
totally  different  to  that  prevailing  in  the  Colonies.  —  The  country, 
as  far  as  30"  Latitude,  is  in  the  immediate  and  actual  possession  of 
France.  Above  this  point  the  military  authorities,  under  the  com- 
mander of  the  19th  Army  Corps,  rule  a  narrow  stretch  of  the  Sahara 
which  has  a  roving  population. 

The  recognised  Sphere  of  Interest  of  France  (Franco-British 
Treaty  of  the  5th  August  1890)  South  of  iVlgiers  and  Tunis  embraces 


tlie  whole  Western  Sahara  between  Morocco  and  Tripoli,  together 
with  the  Oases  Gurara,  Tiiat  (Insalah)  and  Tidikelt,  as  well  as  the 
district  between  the  caravan  route  of  Fezzan  on  the  Tsad  Lake, 
and  about  the  12''  Longitude  West  of  Greenwich  on  the  one  side, 
and  the  land  stretching  from  the  Eastern  frontier  of  the  Spanish  Protecto- 
rate of  Rio  d'Oro  to  the  Niger  River,  and  along  the  course  of  the  same, 
as  far  as  the  Town  Say,  on  the  other.  According  to  the  treaty  in 
question  between  France  and  England  of  the  5th  August,  1890,  this 
territory  is  further  bordered  towards  the  East  by  a  line  which  runs 
from  the  Town  Say  on  the  Niger  in  a  northerly  curve  in  the  Sahara 
to  the  Town  Sinder,  15*^  North  Latitude,  and  thence  directly  East  over 
Guro  to  the  West  shore  of  the  Tshad  Lake  near  to  the  14"  North 
Latitude,  so  that  the  whole  country  of  the  Tuareg,  Tuat,  Tidikelt, 
also  the  Damerghu  Territory  and  the  North -West  border  of  the 
Tshad  Lake  belong  to  the  French  Sphere  of  Interest.  (1  million 
square  miles  superficial  area.) 

Carthaginian,  Numidian,  Roman,  Byzantine,  and  Vandal  govern-  History, 
ment.  Conquered  by  the  Arabs  in  the  8th  century.  Arabian  and 
Moorish  Sovereigns.  Since  1492  A.  D.  Moorish  pirate  state;  from 
the  second  half  of  the  16th  century  under  the  nominal  suzerainty 
of  Turkey,  but  in  reality  independent.  Tlie  pirates  were  held  in 
check  by  Louis  IX  of  France,  Charles  V,  and  Louis  XIV. 

1708,  Spain  finally  withdrew  the  garrison  which  had  been 
maintained  in  Oran  since  1492  A.  D.  At  the  head  of  the  military 
republic  stood  the  Deys,  proclaimed  by  the  Janissary,  the  last  of 
wliom,  Hussein,  surrendered  to  the  French  arms  on  the  5th  July, 
1830,  and  was  held  prisoner  by  the  French  at  Alessandria  in 
Italy  till  his  death. 

1831  —  1842,  February.  War  with  Abd  el-Kader. 

1834,  July  22nd.  Royal  ordinance,  according  to  which  tlie 
con^iuered  district  is  to  l)e  called  "Possessions  frau(;aises  dans  le 
noid   de  TAfiiiiue". 


1844.   Fremli  war  ai;ainst  Moroi'cit,  wliithcr  Abd  el-  Kader  tied. 

1847,  Deceniber  lUtli    Capture  of  Abd  el-Kader. 

1852 — 1858.  Takiiii;'  of  Iuiij;liuat.  Tlie  lleiii  iNKzab  come  under 
French  ])rotection. 

1858 — 1854,  'J'lie  Oases  of  Tuggurt  and  Wadi  Suf,  as  well  as 
Wargia  captured. 

1S58 — 181)0,  Algiers  placed  under  a  ^Ministry  "for  Algiers  and 
the  Colonies." 

18(32,  Tieatv  of  Ghadaines  with  Tuareg. 

1881,  Revolt  of  m  Aniena. 

1882,  Novembei-  17th,   Incorporation  of  the  Beni  M'zab  district. 
1896,  December  Hist,  Reorganisation  of  tiie  aduiinistration. 

Varia.  The  French  Chamber  has  the  sole  right  of  legislature  in  Algiers. 

—  France  protects  the  Moroccan  Sherif  of  Wesan. 

Capital:  Algiers,  82,585  inhabitants. 


Official titu-.  Macjlii'th  el  (iqsd  (i.  e.   "Extreme  West"),  el  GImrh  (i.  e.    "the 


Kiniiti.'is.  The  Moroccan  district  begins  on  the  coast  of  the  Mediterranean 

Sea  by  the  mouth  of  the  Muluja-River*),  and  extends  to  the  South 
as  far  as  of  Cape  Juby  (28''  North  Latitude).  A  commercial  settlement 
was  founded  on  this  important  point  as  early  as  1764,  reestablished 
in  1876  by  the  British  North -West  Africa  Company,  and  having 
been  repeatedly  destroyed,  was  purchased  by  Morocco  in  1895. 
The  Spanish  Protectorate  of  Rio  d'Oro  begins  South  of  Cape  Juby. 
— •    The    E(xst    and    South    Frontiers    are    not    yet    defined ;     their 

*)  Except  the  Spanish  Pi-esidios  (see  p.  17j  and  Ifni,  near  Cape  Nun. 


course  in  the  Sahara,  East  of  Cape  Juby,  is  siicli  that  the  Nomads 
on  tlie  banks  of  the  River  Wadis,  which  discliarges  itself  into  the  sea 
between  this  Cape  and  Cape  Nun,  are  subject  to  tlie  Sultan.  The 
line  then  follows  the  upper  course  of  the  Wadi  Di-aa  towards  the 
North  East,  and  in  the  East  in  the  direction  of  the  Tafilet  Oasis, 
which  belongs  to  Morocco.  Tuat  with  Ain  Salah  (Insalah)  belongs  al- 
ready to  the  P'rench  Sphere  of  Interest.  To  the  East  of  the  Figig  Oasis 
the  boundary-line  inclines  towards   the  mouth  of  the  River  Muliija. 

The  accounts  of  authorities  concerning  the  area  of  the  Sultan's  Area. 
Kingdom  are,  to  say  the  least,  conflicting.  Whereas  formerly 
800,000  sq.  km.  were  the  recognised  figures  —  which  would  still  be 
correct  if  Tuat  were  included  (a  view  apparently  untenable)  — 
one  may  very  well  put  down  the  area,  Tuat  and  the  parts  of  the 
desert  excluded,  at  450,000  sq.  km.  (according  to  English  estimates 
219,000  square  miles).  Of  these  439,240  sq.  km.  belong  to  the  old 
territory  and  about  10,000  sq.  km.  to  the  new  possession  in  the 
'vicinity  of  Cape  Juby  (El  Gada). 

The  estimated  number  of  inhabitants  in  Morocco  has  varied  i*<>p»iation. 
since  the  land  was  first  explored  by  Europeans  between  2,500,000 
and  9,400,000.  The  population  is  generally  estimated  at  from  5 
to  8  millions.  8  millions  appear  to  be  the  most  correct  figures  (about 
18  persons  to  the  sq.  km.).  Gerhard  Rohlfs,  however,  gave  in  1883 
only  2,700,000  inhabitants.  Taking  the  highest  figures  as  correct, 
according  to  English  estimate,  the  population  is  divided  as  follows : 
Fez  3,200,000,  Morocco  3,900,000,  Tafilet  800,000,  Sus  and  Draa 
territories  1,400,000.  —  There  are  about  1500  foreigners  in  the 

The  Dominion  embraces  the  Sultanates  of  Fez  (Fas)  and  Morocco      Division. 
(Merakesh),   formerly  independent   of  each  other,    the  Oases  Tafilet, 
Figig,   Kenatsa,  Tazzctrult,    Sidshilmessa,    Rif,    the  Wadi  Sus,  Wadi 
Draa  and  Cape  Juby.     Tiie  Empire  is  divided   into  44  districts  or 


Amaliits.  ;it   the  IunuI  of  wliicli  aio   Paslias  or  (^);ulis.    TIk^    Hedoiiins 
have   their  own   cliii'f.   who  is  a])point(Ml    hv   tho  Sultan. 

Possession.  rii,>  wlioh'  district  is  consideiHMl   the  actual    possession    of    the 

Sultan,  hut  his  word  is  seldom  respected  by  the  IJedouins.  There 
is  no  Moroccan  Sphere  of    Interest. 

History.  JMoorish-Carthai^inian,  Roman,    Gothic,    Vandal   and    Byzantine 

government.  Arabs  conquered  the  T^and  in  the  8th  century  A.  D, 
Piratical  state.  Occasionally  attacked  by  Spain  and  Portugal.  Under 
the  descendant  of  Abbassides,  Idris'ibn'Abdallah,  Morocco  was  raised 
to  the  im])ortance'  of  a  large  independent  State  (Dynasties :  Edrisiden, 
Fatimiden,  Omajaden  of  Spain,  Alnioraviden,  Almohaden,  IJeni  Mcrini 
of  Figig,  Assaniten  of  the  Wadi  Draa,  and  finally  since  1G99  A.  D. 
Fileliten  [Aliden]  of  Tafilet).  The  Empire  always  remained  inde- 
pendent of  the  Porte. 

1672  till  1727  A.  D.  War  with  Spain.  —  Foundation  of  the 
Presidios  (see  page   17). 

Till   1822,  A.  I).  Great  civil  war  and  internal  crises. 

1844—1847.  War  with  France  and  bombardment  of  Tangiers, 
and  Mogador  (Battle  of  Dsholi).  Morocco  surrendered  in  1847  the 
North-East  district  to  Al)d  el-Kader. 

1845,  French-Moroccan  treaty  concerning  the  East  frontier  of 
the  Empire. 

1851,  November  25th,  Bombardment  of  Saleh  by  French  ships. 

1856,  French  campaign  under  de  Colomb  and  Count  Wimpffen 
against  Morocco. 

1859  —  1860,  April,  Renewed  war  with  Spain  and  defeat  of 
the  Moroccans  at  Tetuan. 

1894,  -Tune  6th,  Sultan  Mulej  Hassan  dies;  Mule]  Abd  el-Aziz 
succeeds  him. 

1895,  Morocco  purchases  the  fort  on  Cape  Juby. 


The  most  important  of  the  European  ambassadorial  journeys  Diplomatic 
to  Morocco,  from  whicli  the  greatest  number  of  commercial  treaties  '^•"•atjons. 
resulted,  are : 

1825,  French  Embassy  under  Caraman  and  Delaporte. 

1829,  British  Embassy  under  Washington. 

1830,  Austrian  Embassy  under  Pflugl  and  Baron  Augustin. 
1830,  French  Embassy  under  de  Chasteau  and  Roche. 
1856,  British  Embassy  under  Drummond  Hay. 

1863,  Spanish  Embassy  under  Don  Merry  and  Colom. 
1875,  Italian  Embassy  under  Edmondo  de  Amicis. 
1877,  German  Embassy  under  Weber  and  Zembsch. 
1882,  Italian  Embassy  under  Cremas. 
1896,  British  Embassy  under  Sir  Arthur  Nicolson. 

The  Sidtan   rules    as  Emir  el-mumenin   (i.  e. :   "Master  of  the       varia. 
Faithful"),  but  in  the  North-East  of  the  Country  the  authority  of  the 
Sherif  is  also  recognised.  The  latter  is  under  French  protection  and 
resident  in  Wesan,  but  only  exercises  a  religious  jurisdiction. 

The  postal  service  is  managed  by  Spain  and  France. 

Capital  of  Morocco  (Merakesh)  is  Fas  {Ft's),  140,000  inhabitants. 
The  foreign  representatives  and  consuls  reside  in  Tangiers;  30,000 

Spanish  Presidios^  Rio  d'Oro^  Canaries, 

(a)   V  r  e  s  i  d  i  o  s. 

Since  the  Moroccan  wars  and  particularly  those  of  the  16tli 
century,  Spain  has  had  the  right  to  maintain  garrisons  (Presidios) 
on  the  North  Coast  of  Morocco.  Tlie  necessity  of  maintaining  them 
ed  to  the  acquisition  of  small  territories  around  the  points  of  Ceuta, 

Count  Kinsley:  "The  Diplomatist's  Handbook  for  Africa".  •  3 


^feUUa,  Vclez  ilc  la  Oonicra  (Pehoii  tie  Volez)  and  Alhuccmas. 
Tliov  were  strongly  fortified  and  received  the  official  name  of  ''os 
presidios".  Tlie  i;-roni)  of  small  ClHtfarimas  Mauds  also  belong  to 
tlie  "Presidios",  Nvhich  comprise  in  all  a  snperficial  area  of  35  sq.  km. 
The  jxtpulation  in  1887  was  5,280;  according  to  other  accounts 
10.000.  The  garrison  consists  of  infantry  regiments  at  Ceuta  and 
]\Ielilla :  at  Ceuta  there  is  also  a  body  of  50  marines  and  a  vo- 
lunteer force  100  strong.  Ceuta,  belonging  to  Cadiz,  had  in  1887 
10,744  inhabitants,  Mehlla  3,538,  Pefion  447,  Alhucemas  366,  the 
Chafarimas  703. 

In  accordance  with  the  treaty  of  Wad  Pias  of  1860  the  Sultan 
of  Morocco  recognises  the  right  of  Spain  to  the  possession  of  the  small 
territory  oi  Santa  Cruz  de  Mar  Peqiiena,  also  called  Ifni  (70  sq.  km., 
6000  inhabitants).  South  of  Mogador  on  the  mouth  of  the  Ifni  River. 
It  was  surrendered  in  due  form  in  October  1883.  Spain  has  hitherto 
enjoyed  no  advantage  from  this  Possession,  but  holds  it  temporarily. 

(h)   "Siihgoherrtorado"   of  Bh  d'Oro. 

Dating  Ijack  to  tlie  period  of  the  great  Portuguese  voyage  of 
discovery  is  an  old  fortress,  23°  36'  18"  North  Latitude.  During  the 
time  of  the  Spanish  government  over  Portugal  it  fell  into  the 
hands  of  Spain,  but  in  course  of  time  it  was  almost  abandoned.  It 
bears  the  name  Rio  d'Oro  (Gold  River),  in  consequence  of  the  custom  of 
the  Portuguese  discoverers  of  bartei'ing  for  gold  here  with  the  Sahara 
caravans  coming  from  the  Niger  territories.  Starting  from  this  point, 
Spain  was  gradually  able  to  form  a  Protectorate  out  of  the  whole 
stretch  of  coast  in  the  North  above  Cape  Bojador,  as  far  as  Cape 
Juby,  and  in  the  South  as  far  as  Cape  lilanco  (Pahia  del  Oeste). 
The  Bank  of  Arguin,  however,  was  not  included  in  this  territory. 
The  attempt  of  a  German  company  in  1886  to  erect  a  factory 
on  the  Rio  d'Oro  called  forth  a  protest  from  Spain  and  an 
assertion    of   her  rights,    followed,    on    the    6th  April,    1887,    by  a 


decree  of  the  Spanish  government,  in  which  the  district  between 
Cape  Blanco  and  Cape  Bojador  was  declared  to  be  Spanish  territory. 
It  w^as  placed  under  the  General-Captaincy  of  the  Canary  Islands 
as  a  ''subgobernorado".  (Governor,  a  ''Subgobernador  Politico-Militilr".) 

The  Uled  Embarek  were  placed  under  French  protection  on  the 
14th  May,  1887.  In  April,  1895,  the  Moorish  tribes  of  Ulad  Dim, 
Gerger  and  Ariissin  stormed  the  Spanish  fort.  Captain  M.  E.  Boretti 
had  already  explored  the  neighboring  district,  in  consequence 
of  a  proclamation  of  Alfonso  XII  of  December  26th  1884,  placing 
this  part  of  Africa  under  permanent  Spanish  rule.  The  '^Sociedad 
Espaiiola  de  Africanistas  y  Colonistas"  was  thus  able  to  obtain 
540  km.  of  sea-coast.  In  1886  it  regulated  the  Southern  frontier 
with  France.  A  military  garrison  was  established  and  the  settle- 
ment, organised  upon  the  plan  prevailing  in  the  Spanish  colonies, 
was  placed  under  the  colonial  ministry.  In  1895,  the  tribes  of  the 
neighbouring  Oasis  territory  and  the  Sahara  of  Adrar  surrendered  to 
the  Spanish  government.  They  solicited  Spanish  protection,  and 
promised  to  respect  the  safety  of  Europeans.  The  disputed 
district  of  Adrar,  or  at  least  its  Northern  part,  can  therefore  be 
rightly  considered  as  under  Spanish  protection.  No  diplomatic 
settlement  of  the  Adrar  question  has  as  yet  taken  place.  Since  Panet's 
journey  in  1850,  the  French  have  also  laid  claim  to  Adrar. 

Area  (700,000  sq.  km.)  243,000  square  miles ;  100,000  inhabi- 
tants (according  to  other  sources  500,000).  Chief  Station,  Rio  d'Oro. 

(c)  The  Canary  Islands  (Mas  Canarias). 

From  an  administrative  point  of  view,  the  Canary  Islands  are 
considered  as  a  part  of  the  mother  country,  Spain.  7,373  sq.  km. 
291,625  inhabitants,  40  to  1  th  sq.  km.  In  1478  they  were  taken 
possession  of  by  Spain,  wliose  rights  have  never  been  disputed. 
Capital,  Santa  Crm  de  Tenerife.  20,000  inhabitants. 


Official  title, 


Madiira,  tlu'   Azoivs  and  Cape  Verde 


TIn'  Tslaiitls  of  Miulvira,  the  "richly  wooded",  and  the  Azores 
(Ulias  Ai.oi't^^'  i>i"  "tlie  Hawk  Islands")  are  treated  politically  and  ad- 
ministratively as  an  integral  part  of  the  mother  countiy,  Portngal. 
TJiv  Islain/x  of  Madeira  comprise  815  sq.  km.  (184-,000  inhabitants, 
l(i2  to  1  the  sq.  km.),  and  the  Azores  2,388  sq.  km.,  (269,401  inhabi- 
tants, 118  to  1  the  sq.  km.).  The  Portuguese  took  possession  of  Madeir 
in  1410.  but  did  not  colonise  the  islands  until  1421,  In  the  group 
are  included  Madeira,  the  Desertas,  and  Porto  Santo.  Capital: 
FfUichaL  20,000  inhabitants.  The  capital  of  the  Azores,  which  were 
discovered  and  inhabited  about  the  middle  of  the  15th  century,  is 
FoNta  Delgada   on  the  island  Sao  Miguel,  with  18,000  inhabitants. 

The  Illias  do  Caho  Verde,  discovered,  1455 — 1462,  by  the 
Portuguese  Antonio  da  Noli,  3581  sq.  km.  with  110,930  inhabitants  (20 
to  the  S([.  km.),  are  divided  into  an  Easterly  and  Westerly  group. 
Unhealthy  climate.  Undisputed  possession  of  Portugal  since  the  earliest 
times.  The  largest  island  is  Sao  Thiago  with  1239  sq.  km.  and 
53,000  inhabitants,  on  which  is  the  capital,  Cidade  de  Fraya,  where 
the  governor  resides. 


Le  Senegal  et  dependances,  Senegamhie. 

Vf>^^eZl^in.  France  claims   the  whole  of  North  AVest  Africa  to   the  South 

of  the  Spanish   Protectorate   of  llio  d'Oro  and   the  Great   Desert, 
also    of   the   Senegal  and   Niger  rivers,    with   the   exception   of  the 


British  possessions  of  Gambia,  Sierra  Leone,  the  Gold  Coast,  Portu- 
guese Guinea  and  the  Liberian  Republic,  4,000,000  sq.  km.  By  the 
Treaty  of  the  5th  August,  1800,  England  recognises  the  following 
frontiers  of  the  territories  under  French  influence  in  the  North, 
South,  East,  and  South  East,  viz.,  Algiers,  Tunis  (N),  a  line  from 
Say  on  the  Niger  to  Baruwa  on  the  Tsad  Lake  (see  Algiers) 
on  the  one  side,  and  on  the  other  a  line  as  far  South  as  the  Upper 
Yolta  in  the  North  of  Ashanti,  whence  it  passes  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Assinie.  The  colony  on  the  Senegal  embraces  only  the  North 
West  part  of  this  vast  territory  as  the  direct  Possession  of  the 
French  Republic.  It  lies  to  the  South,  i.  e.,  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  river.  The  official  frontier  between  the  Senegal  Colony  and  the 
French  Soudan  forms  a  line  from  Kayes  to  Bumtu  on  the  Faleme, 
passing  along  the  bed  of  this  stream  as  far  as  the  frontier  of  Futa 
Dshallon,  and  then  along  the  Diankolo  River,  which  is  looked  upon 
as  a  continuation  of  the  Faleme.  On  the  coast,  the  territory 
extends  from  the  mouth  of  the  Senegal  to  that  of  the  Salum,  13" 
and  21"  40'  North  Latitude,  a  distance  of  1200  km. ;  and  from  the 
right  bank  of  the  Senegal  to  Arguin  Bank  near  Cape  Blanco.  In 
the  East  the  Colony  extends  from  the  valley  of  the  Senegal  to  the 
Niger,  i.  e.,  as  far  as  Segu  Sikoro  and  Sansandig.  It  is  scarcely 
possible  to  trace  out  an  exact  line  of  frontier  for  the  Senegal  Colony, 
owing  to  the  circumstance  that  immediately  adjoining  the  Senegal 
Colonial  territory  of  the  French  Soudan  (Soudan  francais  p.  23)  and 
the  possessions  on  the  Ivory  Coast  (lUvieres  du  Sud),  (which  embrace 
a  great  number  of  French  protectorate  districts,)  the  French  stations 
in  the  Senegal  valley  in  the  direction  of  Matam  are  each  surrounded 
by  an  area  not  strictly  defined,  but  passing  as  the  direct  and  actual 
possession  of  the  Republic.  The  natives,  moreover,  would  not 
be  likely  to  respect  it,  as  the  frontier  line  is  subject  to  frequent 

The   Senegal  Colony  embraces    the  communities   of  St.  Louis, 
Dakar,  Rufisquc,  the    Island  Goree,    the   Arguin,    Bank   and  Island 



till"  i)roviiiii's  NDiaiulor,  Claiii;tuiiiiu'\  rankoy,  in  the  Cayor  district, 
I  ho  tiiritorios  MTall,  Kliateto.  and  the  station  ]>atete. 

Area.  The  Senegal  (■olony,  including  that  of  the  llivieres  dii  Sud,  is 

o|m«ioii.  ^_^.^^  ^^^  comprise  14.700  square  miles  and  174,000  to  200,000  inha- 
bitants, of  whicli  1.^5,000  belong  to  Senegal  alone.  French  West 
Africa  has  in  all  a  total  superticial  area  of  1,400,000  sq.  km. 
Reckoning  also  the  numerons  small  West-African  States,  ^Yhicll 
stretch  from  the  Senegal  River  over  Futa  Dshallon  (Guin6e  Fran- 
Qaise)  down  to  the  Ivory  Coast,  and  either  form  an  integral  part  of 
the  French  Protectorate  or  are  considered  as  such,  the  figures  would 
be  54,000  square  miles  superficial  area  and  1,700.000  inhabitants 
(1807)  for  the  whole  territory.  It  should  be  here  stated  that  some 
authoiities  return  the  number  of  inhabitants  of  the  Senegal  Colony 
and  the  French  Soudan  in  round  numbers  as  5  Millions. 

History.  The  Rivcr  Senegal  and  the  districts  at  its  mouth  are  supposed 

to  have  been  discovered  by  the  French  Normans,  after  they  had 
been  already  visited  by  the  Carthaguiians.  The  Portuguese  appeared 
there  in  1556,  the  first  European  settlement  being  formed  in  1664. 

1664 — 1758,  Establishment  of  French  commercial  houses  on 
the  Senegal. 

1758 — 1793,  England  annexes  and  occupies  the  Senegal  Coast. 

176.3.  The  Senegal  territory  temporarily  ceded,  to  England  at 
the  Peace  of  Paris;  formally  restored  20  years  later. 

1793  and  following  years,  state  of  anarchy.  Disputes  about 
possession.     Wars  with  the  natives. 

1817,  France  again  definitely  obtains  the  Senegal  territory 
and  remains  henceforth  in  undisputed  possession. 

1854,  Faidherbe's  appearance  on  the  Senegal.  War  with  the 
Trarzas  and  Hadsch  Omar.  The  first  French  advance  to  Futa  Dschallon. 

1860—1863,  War  with  Cayor.  Battle  of  Ngolgol,  30th  Dec.  1863. 

1872  and  following  years.  Galleni's,  Archinard's,  Combes',  and 
Monteil's  campaigns  against  the  Dominions  of  Samory. 


1882,  June  28th,  Frontier  treaty  with  England.  14th  Sept. 
Protectorate  over  Bafing. 

1882 — 1891,  Fifteen  Treaties  for  the  cession  of  territories  con- 
ckided  with  native  princes. 

1895,  June  16th,  Creation  of  the  ''Gouvernement  general  de 
I'Afrique  occidentale". 

Residence  of  the  Governor-General,  St.  Louis,  20,000  inhabitants.        varia. 

French  Soudan. 

Le  Soudan  Fraurais.  Official  title 

Officially,  this  title  comprises  all  the  territories  of  the  interior  Frontiers, 
of  West  Africa  which  lie  on  the  Upper  Senegal  and  on  the  Upper 
and  Middle  Niger.  Towards  the  North,  the  territory  crosses  into 
the  great  French  Sphere  of  Interest  of  the  West  Sahara;  in  the 
West  it  borders  on  the  Senegal  Colony  and  the  Guinee  Frangaise, 
Sierra  Leone,  Liberia,  and  the  Colony  of  the  Rivieres  du  Sud.  The 
East  frontier  is  not  exactly  determined,  but  joins  the  boundary  line 
of  the  French  Sphere  of  Interest  (from  Say  on  the  Niger  to  the 
Upper  A'olta  and  the  mouth  of  the  Assinie).  From  4'^  West  Latitude 
of  Greenwich,  as  far  as  the  Western  frontier  of  Sokoto,  England, 
France,  and  Germany  are  each  striving  to  augment  their  influence 
among  the  negroes,  and  protectorate  or  commercial  treaties  are  being 
frequently  concluded  with  native  princes.  Since  the  occupation  of 
Timbuctoo  by  the  French,  the  course  of  the  Niger  is  no  longer 
the  North  frontier  of  the  French  Soudan,  which  extends  beyond  the 
river  into  the  Turag  districts  of  the  South  Sahara.  In  this  immense 
sphere  of  power  a  distinction  is  made  officially  between:  1.  occupied; 
2.  annexed;  and  3.  protected  territories.  For  the  official  frontier 
between  the  French  Soudan  and  the  Senegal  Colony,  see  page  21. 

Owing  to  the  constant  changes  in  area  of  the  occupied  territories.        Area. 


it  is  difficult  to  give  any  reliable  figures.    The  annexed  territories,     Divisions. 


Pi.ssessioM.  mostly  sitiiatea  on  tlie  Upper  Senegal  (Kaarta,  Bachimu,  the  Country 
of  the  rietl  Eniharek,  Bambuk,  Fuladugu,  Belcdugu,  Bambara,  Bondu, 
Futa  Toro,  FutaDsliallon,  Tinibiictoo)  arc  held  to  contain  54,000  square 
miles  and  o()0,000  inhabitants;  the  protected  territories  (Massina, 
Segii,  Sainory's  and  Tieba's  Country,  Jatenga,  Aribinda,  Kong) 
280,000  square  miles  and  3  million  inhabitants  (5  millions,  including 
tlie  Senegal  Colony).  Continual  fighting  takes  place  between  the 
French  troops  and  the  natives,  particularly  with  the  Turaeg  negroes 
in  tlie  Xi^'tli  and  the  ]\Iadinka  negroes  in  the  South,  whenever 
France  attempts  fresh  occupation.  The  territories  in  dispute  between 
France,  Germany  and  England  are  in  particular  Gurma  and  Mossi 
(Muschi).  It  is  not  yet  determined  how  far  the  j)oiver  of  the  Sultan 
of  Sokoto  extends  in  the  West.  The  petty  princes  declare  it  does 
not  reach  so  far  as  this  district ;  consequently  the  conditions  of  the 
Anglo-Frencli  treaty  of  the  5th  August  1890  are  not  applicable 
to  this  part  of  Africa.  To  determine  the  sphere  of  power  of  Sokoto 
is  a  i)roblem  which  will  require  some  time  before  it  is  practically 
and  satisfactorily  solved. 

1796,  July  20th,  Mungo  Park  arrives  on  the  Niger. 
1827—1828,  Rene  Caillie's  journey  through  the  West  Soudan 
and  to  Timbuctoo. 

1865,  First  French  military  campaign  to  the  Soudan. 

1878  and   following  years,    Gallieni's  and  Archinard's  military 
expeditions  to  the  Soudan. 

1880,  Gallienis    protectorate    treaty  with  Ahmadu,  which  was 
not  carried  into  effect. 

1881,  July  14th,  Futa  Dshallon  under  French  rule. 
1883 — 1885,  Campaigns  against  Samory. 

1887,  March  23rd,  Samory  under  French  protection.  —  April 
22nd  Segu,  Nioro,  Kaarta  ditto. 

1889,  Captain  Binger's  advance  on  Kong. 

1890,  Incorporation  of  the  territory  between  Bassam  and  Liberia. 


1894,  Taking  of  Tirabuctoo  by  the  French. 

1895,  June,   16th,  Creation  of  the  "Gouvernement  general    de 
TAfrique  occideutale". 

1896,  Hourst   navigates    the    Niger.   —  The    French    occupy 
Wagadugii,  the  Capital  of  Mossi. 

The  French  Soudan  is  ruled  by  a  military  governor,   who  has       Vaiia. 
his  residence    at  Kayes,   but  who  is    subordinate    to   the   governor- 
general  of  the  Senegal  Colony. 

French  Guinea  and  the  lyory  Coast. 

Guinee  Frangaise;  Rivieres  du  Sud,  Cote  d'ivoire.  Official  title. 

French  Guinea,  which  was  separated  from  the  Senegal  Colony     frontiers. 


on  the  1st  January  1890,  includes  the  districts  on  the  Casamanza 
(Casamence  11" — 9'^  North  Latitude)  together  with  the  neighbouring 
Archipelago,  with  the  exception  of  Los  Islands,  which  are  EngUsh ; 
further,  the  coast  territory  from  the  mouth  of  the  River  Nuiiez  to 
the  mouth  of  the  Scarcies,  together  with  the  Interior,  Futa  Dshallon, 
bordering  on  the  French  Soudan,  the  frontiers  of  which  are  not 
yet  determined.  (Treaty  ivlth  England  28tli  June  1882).  For 
administrative  purposes,  the  French  Possessions  on  the  Ivory  Coast 
were  included  in  this  territory  down  to  1896,  as  also  those  on  the 
Gold  Coasts  beginning  on  the  coast  at  Cape  Palmas  at  the  mouth 
of  the  St.  Pietro  Pdver,  and  extending  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the 
Assiuie  River  (Grand  Bassam,  Grand  Lahou,  Jackville),  including  the 
Interior  with  undefined  frontiers.  (Treaty  ivitli  England  10th  Aiigust 
1894.)  This  territory  is  called  Rivieres  du  Sud  (formerly  Bas  de  Cote). 

The  district  on  the  Casamanza  contains  15,000  sq.  km. ;  (Guinee       Area. 


Francaise,  150,000  sq.  km.),  with  103,000  inhabitants  (Guinee 
Franc^aise,  500,000  [200  Europeans]).  The  Rivieres  du  Sud  include 
about  25,000  square  miles  with  a   fluctuating  population  of  about 

Count  Kinsky:  "The  Dii)loiiiati8t'8  Handbook  for  Africa".  4 







200,000.  Of  eoiivse,  only  tlie  inhabited  stretch  of  coast  is  here 
taken  into  acc(unit,  as  tlie  area  and  popnlation  of  the  Interior 
horderiiiii'  on  the  Froncli  Siuidan  (Koni;'  and  I'.eledugu)  do  not  appear 
to  ho  dctoiinined. 

Tho  wliolc  country  on  the  Casamanza  is  the  immediate  possession 
of  France.  The  governor  of  French  Guinea  also  exercises  authority 
over  Fiita  Dshallon.  Outside  the  coast  territories  of  the  llivieres 
du  Slid.  i.  0..  in  the  Interior  the  protectorate  of  France  is  con- 
stantly extending. 

Since  the  middle  of  the  15th  century,  the  Portuguese  have  traded 
towards  the  Casamanza,  where  the  British  have  several  times  tried  to 
obtain  a  firm  footing,  but  without  success. 

1828,  France  occupies  the  Island  Djogue  at  the  mouth  of  the 

1836 — 1837,  The  French  occupy  the  islands  Carabane  and 
Guimbering  at  the  mouths  of  the  Casamanza  and  Cacheo,  and  found 
the  station  Sedhiu  on  the  main-land. 

1868,  February  4th,  Treaty  with  Beriby  and  Basha  (ratified 
20th  December  1883). 

1883,  December  16th,  A  French  resident  appears  at  Assinie, 
although  the  F'rench  troops  had  been  withdrawn  from  the  garrison 
in  1870,  since  which  time  the  coast  was  guarded  l)y  the  employes 
of  the  firm  Yerdier  et  de  la  Rochelle.  The  French,  however,  always 
retained  protectorate  rights. 

1884,  Bouet  Willaumez's  treaty  with  the  chiefs  of  the  Ivory 
coast  of  Assinie,  Grand  Bassam,  and  Dabii. 

1885,  Decemher  24th,  Convention  hetween  France,  rortiujal  and 
Germany,  by  which  the  territories  of  Kaba  and  Kabitai,  which 
Germany  had  occupied  betw^een  Compony  and  Mellacoree,  were 
restored  to  France. 

1886,  May  12th,  Convention  hetiveen  Portugal  and  France 
(ratified  31st  August  1887j  which  fixed  the  present  frontiers  of  the 


territories  on  the  Casamanza,  aud  by  which  France  ceded  the  terri- 
tories of  the  Rio  Cassini  and  Ziquincior  to  Portugal. 

1889,  August  10th,  Frontier  Regulation  with  England.  Sepa- 
ration of  the  colony  from  the  Senegal. 

1891,  France  occupies  the  last  unoccupied  stretch  of  coast 
South  of  the  Liberian  frontier. 

1893,  March  10th,  Organisation  of  the  colonies :  (1)  La  Guinee 
fran^aise;  (2)  Cote  d'ivoire;  (3)  Dahomey. 

1895,  Jamianj  21d,  Convention  bekveen  France  and  England 
relating  the  frontier  line.  —  15th  June.  Constitution  of  the 
"Gouvernement  general  de  I'Afrique  occidentale". 

1896,  March  16th.  Organisation  of  a  judicial  autonomy  for 
French  Guinea. 

The  governor  of ''Guinee  franqaise"  has  his  residence  at  Conakry 
on  Tombo  Island ;  the  governor  of  the  Ivory  Coast  at  Grand  Bassam. 

Portuguese  Guinea  or  Portuguese 

Guinea  Vurtiigueza,  Senegambia  Fortugueza. 

This  embraces  the  territory  between  the  basin  of  the  Casamanza 
and  that  of  the  Cassini.  The  North  frontier  forms  the  watershed 
between  the  Casamanza  and  the  Cacheo,  the  South  frontier  a  line 
from  the  Channel  between  Catak  Island,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Cassini,  and  the  mainland,  and  from  Tristao,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Compony,  running  thence  to  the  middle  of  the  course  of  the  Cassini, 
and  finally  crossing  this  river  as  well  as  the  Rio  Grande,  to  the  west  of 
the  junction  of  the  Combia.  The  two  frontier  lines  meet  at  the 
Geba  Springs  (Treaty  with  France  12th  May  1880). 



Official  title. 











Tlk' (livtiiit  also  iMiibraiH's  tlio  Bissagos  Archipelago,  30  islands, 
tlu>  largest  ot"  \\lii(li   is  ()rango. 

riu"  siipriticial  area  is  fVom  IW,!)!)!),  to  42,000  S(i.  km.;  but 
only  about  7"J  sq.  km.  are  occupied.  Scattered  settlements  cover 
a  surface  of  10,000  sq.  km. 

The  i)opulation  is  estimated  on  the  undetermined  colonised  area. 
The  figures  therefore  differ,  varying  as  they  do  between  150,000 
aiul  800.000  (the  latter  from  English  sources,  1885). 

In  theory,  direct  possession;  in  reality  not  to  be  distinguished 
from  a  protectorate. 

Portugal  settled  here  in  the  middle  of  the  15tli  century. 

1692.  Andr^  Brue  landed  275  British  colonists  here;  the 
greater  number  succumbed  to  the  climate,  whereupon  England  withdrew 
all  claim  to  possession. 

1870.  Decision  of  the  President  of  the  U.  S.  A.,  as  arbiter, 
in  favour  of  Portugal. 

1885.  May  15tli.  Regulation  of  the  present  Northern  frontier 
on  the  basis  of  a  Treaty  with  France^  which  however  was  not  ratified 
until  August  1887. 

Residence  of  the  governor,  Boldma  (Bulam). 

British  Possessions  in  West -Africa. 

Official  title.  West-Afr'ican  Colonies  (formerly  West-African  Settlements). 

Divisions.  The   British    possession    in  "West-Africa   consists   of  4   crown 

colonies:  Gambia,  Sierra  Leone,  Gold  Coast,  and  Lagos. 


(a)    G  a  m  b  i  a. 

The  Gambia  Colony  embraces  the  territory  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Gambia  River.,  viz.,  the  island  Santa  Maria,  13°  28'  North 
Latitude,  with  Combo  and  Punta  Barra  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
river,  and  the  Bank  d'Albreda,  San  Giacamo,  P^lephant  and  Mac 
Carthy  Islands  with  the  corresponding  river  banks.  The  present  frontiers 
were  agreed  upon  between  the  French  and  British  Governments  by 
the  Treaty  of  the  lOtli  August  {2\\([  and  19th  Nov.)  1889.  Accor- 
dingly, Georgetown  on  the  Gambia  forms  the  most  easterly  point  of  the 
British  territory.  The  superficial  area  amounts  to  about  7000  sq.  km. 
(2700  square  miles),  the  inhabitants  to  50,000.  The  so-called  ''settle- 
ment proper"  contains  only  69  square  miles  with  14,978  inhabitants 
(1894);  the  remainder  is  a  Sphere  of  Interest.  Since  1821  the 
British  have  been  in  undisputed  possession  of  the  colony.  Previously 
however,  the  Portuguese,  French,  Dutch  and  Spanish  were  in  posses- 
sion. Gambia  was  separated  from  Sierra  Leone  for  administrative 
purposes  on  the  1st  December  1888. 

Capital :  St.  Mary  of  Bathiirst,  6000  inhabitants. 

(b)  Sierra   Leone. 

This  colony  extends  180  English  miles  along  the  coast  from  the 
Scaries  River  in  the  North  to  the  Liberian  frontier  in  the  South,  em- 
braces the  island  Sherbro  and  Cape  Mount,  has  about  39,000 
or  L5,000  square  miles  and  180,000  inhabitants,  including  about 
300  whites.  The  North  frontier  was  defined  in  detail  by  a  Treaty 
between  France  and  England  of  the  2Stli  June,  1882  (adopted  by  the 
French  Chamber  1894)  and  the  Southern  frontier  on  the  basis  of 
one  betiveen  England  and  Liberia  of  the  11th  January,  1887.  By  a 
Treaty  of  21st  January,  1895,  only  the  Northern  frontier  alone  was 
revised  by  an  Anglo-French  Frontier  Regulation  Commission;  but 
the  details  of  it  have  not  yet  been  recognised  by  the  powers.  The  cause  of 


this  rovision  was  a  still    valid  treaty  with  France,   giving  the  latter 
the  liuht  to  annex  territories  on  the  Upper  Niger. 

Tlu'  territory  was  first  visited  by  the  Carthaginians.  They 
were  followed  by  I'rench  mariners  from  Dieppe  in  the  15th  century, 
who  settled  here,  after  which  the  rortuguese  took  possession.  In  1787 
it  was  ceded  to  England  by  native  chiefs.  In  1800  to  1808,  a  British 
trading  company  occupied  the  territory,  and  eight  years  later  trans- 
ferred their  rights  to  the  British  Government.  18G1,  the  Island 
Sherbro  was  sold  to  England  by  the  native  chiefs;  1883,  consi- 
derably extended.  Sierra  Leone  contains  4000  square  miles  and 
(1891)  74,835  inhabitants,  including  224  whites.  Separated  from 
Gambia  for  administrative  purposes  on  1st  December  1888. 

Capital:  Freetown,  30,033  inhabitants. 

(c)  Gold    Coast. 

The  British  Colonies  on  the  Gold  Coast,  Appolonia,  Vassao, 
Krikor,  Denkera,  Sefui,  Akim,  Croboe,  Crepi,  Akw^ama,  Cape  Coast 
Castle,  Elmina,  Axim,  Accra,  Adda,  Winnebac,  Quitta,  Dixcove, 
Secomdi,  Anamaboe,  embrace  350  miles  of  coast  on  the  Gulf  of  Guinea 
between  5'^  West  and  2'^  East  Longitude  from  Greenwich  together 
with  the  Interior,  the  limits  of  which  have  not  yet  been  determined. 
An  agreement  tvas  come  to  ivlth  France  concerning  the  course  of 
the  Western  frontier  as  far  as  10''  North  Latitude  in  July  1893,  and 
ivith  Germany  and  England  on  the  1st  July  1890  with  reference  to 
the  Eastern  frontier,  which  from  the  7"  North  Latitude  and  beyond  is 
not  yet  determined.  The  Northern  frontier  in  no  way  defines  the  limits 
of  the  Soudanese  districts  of  Mossi  and  Gurma,  as  the  upper  course 
of  the  Volta  is  not  yet  exactly  known,  while  Great  Britain  is  engaged 
in  extending  her  sphere  of  interest  by  the  conclusion  of  protectorate 
and  commercial  treaties.  In  1896  the  King  of  Ashanti  placed  himself 
under  British  protection. 


The  area  of  the  territory  claimed  by  Great  Britain  is  given 
as  120,000  sq.  km.,  the  population  (1891)  1,473,882  (150  whites). 
15,000  square  miles  form  direct  possession,  the  frontiers  of  this  terri- 
tory being  constantly  extended.  46,600  square  miles  (1895)  belong 
to  the  protectorate. 

It  is  alleged  that  mariners  from  Dieppe  landed  on  the  Gold 
Coast  as  early  as  1365.  1610,  the  Portuguese  took  possession  and 
inhabited  the  territory.  1616,  the  Dutch  ceded  to  England,  by  the 
treaty  of  Breda,  the  land  which  had  been  gradually  gained,  and  two 
private  trading  companies  undertook  the  opening  up  of  this  rich 
district,  in  order  to  surrender  it  in  1821  to  the  British  government, 
which  for  administrative  purposes  incorporated  it  to  Sierra  Leone. 
1824,  commencement  of  the  war  with  the  barbarian  state  of  the 
Ashantis,  in  which  the  Fantis  w^ere  England's  allies.  1837,  Dutch 
Embassy  sent  to  the  Court  of  Ashanti.  1850,  England  buys  the 
fortresses  of  Accra  and  Quitta  from  Denmark  for  250,000  francs. 
1867  and  1871,  Holland  sells  the  remainder  of  its  possessions  on 
the  Gold  Coast  (tracts  on  the  Sweet  Biver)  to  England.  1873, 
England's  war  with  Ashanti;  battles  of  Essaman,  Iskobio,  Amaoful, 
Becquah,  Ordashu  and  Coomassi.  1874,  February  4th,  Taking  and 
burning  of  Coomassi.  1895 — 1896,  Third  military  expedition  against 
Ashanti  and  submission  of  king  Prempeh,  who  places  himself  under 
English  protection.  Since  15th  of  Jan.,  1886,  independent  government. 

Capital:  Accra,  16,267  inhabitants. 

(d)   L  (Iff  0  s. 

The  island  and  town  of  Lagos  on  the  Slave  Coast  from  Badagry 
to  Lekke  are  the  actual  possession  of  England.  The  British  Protecto- 
rate extends  between  the  2"  and  6"  East  Longitude  of  Greenwich 
(Treaty  tvith  France,  20tli  Aug.  1889)  "for  some  distance  inland",  a 
definition  which  distinctly  shows  the  undetermined  nature  of  the 
frontiers.  In  consequence  of  the  war  against  Yoruba  (with  Abeokutta, 


.Ibtulan  and  Ogboiiiotsho)  in  ]  893— 1894,  and  tlie  Jebii,  the  British 
protec'torato  was  also  extended  over  tliis  tliickly-populated  dominion. 
The  I'ritisli  also  claim  l^orgu  for  the  protectorate. 

Accord/ttf/  fo  s/irrci/s,  the  island  and  the  protectorate  contain 
1(^71  square  miles  or  2770  sq.  km.;  with  100,000  inhabitants. 
\  oruba  included,  the  British  territory  embraces  20,070  square  miles 
or  51.800  s(i.   km.  and  3  million  inhabitants  (150  whites). 

Lagos  was  an  ancient  slave  market.  1852,  England  concluded 
a  treaty  with  King  Dotschemo,  resulting  in  the  abolition  of  the 
slave  trade,  and  the  establishment  of  the  British  Protectorate. 

1862,  March  3rd,  Annexation  of  Lagos,  and  connection  of  the 
colonies  for  administrative  purposes  with  Sierra  Leone. 

1874,  July  24th,  Lagos  placed  under  the  Governor  of  the 
Oold  Coast. 

1883,  Extension  of  the  Colony. 

1886,  January  15th,  Independent  government. 

1892 — 1895,  Campaigns  against  the  Egba  and  Jebu. 

Capital:  Lagos  (the  African  Liverpool)  60,000  inhabitants. 


Official  titi.  (.yiifed  States  of  Liheria. 

Kiutitiors.  ^]^g  territory  of  the  Republic  extends  along  the  Atlantic  coast 

from  Cape  Mount,  near  Bobert's-Port,  to  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Pietro 
(630  km.).  The  frontier  towards  Sierra  Leone  was  separately  dctined 
in  a  Treahj  with  England  24tli  Bee.  1885  and  11th  Nov.  1887; 
and  that  bordering  on  French  territory  in  a  Treatg  with  Franee, 
8  Dec- 1892  and  August  1804.     It   stretches    into    the   Mandinka 




Countries  almost  as  far  as  Musardu,  and  is  therefore,  on  the  average 
more  than  300  km.  distant  from  the  sea. 

The  superficial  area  amounts  to  85,350  sq.  km.  or  14,360  square        Area, 

Population,  1,068,000;  (according  to  earlier  estimates,  760,000    Population 
to  2  millions),  of  which  18,000  are  Americo-Liberians. 

The  territory  comprises  four  states  viz  :  Mesurado,  Grand  Bassa, 
Sinu  and  Maryland.  A  Sphere  of  Interest  or  Protectorate  does  not  exist. 

1815,  Arrival  in  Sierra  Leone  of  the  first  emancipated  negroes 
from  Massachussetts. 

1820,  P'ounding  of  the  American  Colonisation  Society  for  the 
settlement  of  emancipated  negroes  from  America,  which  formed  the 
first  colony  in  Liberia. 

1822,  The  whole  colony  declares  itself  an  independent  and 
free  republic.  Government  formed  in  1847. 

1857,  Union  of  the  Maryland  territory  with  the  Republic.  This 
territory  was  founded  by  TJie  Maryland  Colonisation  Society  in  1834. 
Lately,  the  American  negroes  have  flocked  back  to  Africa  in  large 
numbers,  for  the  purpose  of  the  repatriation  of  the  negro  race,  a  move- 
ment which  is  being  zealously  advocated  in  the  U.  S.  A. 

Capital,  Monrovia  (5000  Inhabitants  in  1891):  the  seat  of  the,       Varia. 
Government,  which  is  based  on  that  of  the  U.  S.  A. 


.  Protectorate  of  the  German  Empire  (Schutzgebiete  des  Deutschen  official  title. 
Reiches) :  Togoland. 

This  part  of  the  Slave  Coast  is  bounded  on  the  West  (1°  14'     Frontiers. 
Longitude  East    of  Greenwich)  by    the  British  Gold  Coast  Colony, 
on   the    East   (1"  41'  Longitude  East    of    Greenwich)    by    French 
Dahomey.    In  the  North  and  North  West,  the  frontiers  are  not  yet 
defined,  but  the  North-West  frontier  is  held  to  extend  from  Lome 

Count    K  i  u  s  k  y,  "The  Diplomatist'H  Handbook  for  Africa".  5 


to  tlu>    lOtlshie  and  XOlta,  tlie  course  of>Yhich  it  follows.  Germany's 

iiitoiition  is  to  advance  as  far  as  the  Niger.   Lengtli  of  coast,  52  km. 

Aiva.  About  76,000  sq.  km..  \\)XM)  S(iuare  miles,  according  to  English 

estimates.     As  far  as  tlie   9"  North   Latitude,  only  60,000  sq.  km. 

I'opniatio...  About  2  Millions.  Only  800,000,  according  to  English  figures. 

S9  Kuroju'ans.  of  which  81   (1897)  are  Germans. 

divisions.  r„o,)  pi-oper,  North  of  the  Avon  Lagoon,  forms    the   heart    of 

the  land  inhabited  by  the  Ewe  tribes;  to  this  must  be  added 
Little  Popo,  ceded  by  France  to  Germany  with  the  Interior  (Adeli 
districts),  in  December  1885.  The  most  important  stations  in  the 
Interior  are  Bismarckburg  and  Misahohe. 

Possession.  Actual  possession  on  the  coast:  Protectorate  in  the  Interior. 

History.  Discovered   in  the  16th  century.   —  1682,   the  Great  Elector 

established  colonies  at  Aneho  (Gross  Friedrichsburg),  which  however 
were  broken  up  in  1718,  having  proved  a  commercial  failure. 
1720,  The  Dutch  took  the  fortress  Gross  Friedrichsburg. 

1884,  July  15th,  The  country  on  the  coast  placed  under  German 
protection  by  the  German  Consul-General,  Dr.  Gustav  Nachtigal, 
by  desire  of  certain  commercial  houses  in  Bremen  and  Hamburg. 
Protectorate  treaty  with  the  King  of  Togo. 

1885,  Dec.  24tlh  France  cedes  Little  Popo  to  Germany  in  accor- 
dance with  Treaty. 

1888,  Treaty  of  neutrality  relating  Salaga.  Germany's  priority 

1894,  Fergusson  tries  to  acquire  Salaga  for  England. 

1894_1895.  Expeditions,  Gruner,  Doring,  Carnap.  Treaties  with 
Goorma,  Mangol,  Dagomba,   Tshantyoan,  Gando. 

1896,  September  1st,  The  French  occupy  Wagadugu. 

1897,  May  24th  —  July  26th,  Conference  between  France  and 
Germany  relating  to  the  hinterland  of  Togo. 

Tiraties  The  East  (Treaty  of  1888,  unpublished)  and  the  North  frontiers 

Hejli'iia t'ion>.  Were  regulated  by  the  Anglo-German  Treaty  of  Oct.  29th  (1st  Nov.) 

^•al•ia.       2S86,  and    the  AVest  frontier  by   the  Franco-German  treaty  of  the 


1st  July,  1890.  (Lome,  Todshie  River  —  Volta  River).  The  territory 
is  under  the  control  of  an  Imperial  Governor- General.  Seat  of 
government,  Sebhe\  since  1897  Lome  (2084  inhabitants,  31  Europeans). 


Baliomey  —  Pays  de  protector  at  de  Dahomey  et  dependances.     Official  title. 

According  to  the  Anylo-French  treaty  of  tJie  10th  August  1889,     Fi-onticrs. 
German  Togoland  (1"41'  Longitude   East   of  Greenwich)  forms  the 
West  frontier,    and   Jorubaland    (course    of  the    Addo)    the    East 
frontier.   The  North  frontier  is  by  no  means  defined.   It  lies  probably 
between  6"  14'  15"  and  6»  23'  51"  N.  Lat. 

The  superficial  area  cannot  be  given  in  exact  figures.  According       Area, 
to    English    estimates    there    are    about  4000    square    miles.     The 
French    calculation  gives    (1897):    40,000    sq.    km.    without  new 
territorial  acquirements. 

The  population,  according  to  English  authorities,  is  730,000,  viz.,   Poimiation. 
Dahomey  150,000,  Grand  Popo  100,000,  Mains  and  Ajada  150,000, 
Porto    Novo    150,000,    Abeokutta    120,000,    Ogbomotsho    60,000. 
About  1  Million,    however,    would   be  nearer  the  mark.     According 
to  the  French:   "300,000  habitants  pacifies  aujourd'hui  (1897)." 

The  French  colonies  on  the  Gold  Coast,  called  Benin,  consisted    Divisions. 


of  Grand  Fopo,  Ague,  and  I'orto  Novo  (Agiuda,  also  Ajuda  or 
Glehue),  also  called  after  the  capital,  Whydah  or  AVeyda  (Uida). 
Since  the  15th  Jan.  1894,  two  French  vassal  kingdoms  took  the 
place  of  the  old  barbarian  dominion  of  Dahomey,  viz.,  Abome  in  the 
North  and  Allada  in  the  South.  Each  had  its  own  king,  who  was 
virtually  a  vassal  of   France.     Their    successors    must    receive    the 



saiu'tioii  of  tho  FriMuh.  win.  have  abolislied  the  former  human 
sacritioes.  A  French  resident  minister  lives  in  Abomt^.  France  has 
introdiued  tVet>  tra(U\  and  has  the  right  to  hiiild  railways  and 
telegrai)lis  in  both  kingdoms  and  to  establish  schools. 

History.  (iraitd  Voi'o  and  A(fi((' wQi'Q  from  the  earliest  times  the  coast  asylum 




lor   the  refugees  from  Dahomey.   1871,  Expulsion   of   the  FAiropeans. 

1883,  French  Protectorate  over  Grand  and  Little  Popo;  April, 
1885,  over  Ague. 

1885,  Little  Popo  ceded  to  Germany. 

Forfo  Novo  became  a  state  in  the  18th  century  at  the  time  of 
the  founding  of  the  town,  Hombonu  (Agiashe  or  Little  Adra)  under 
King  Allada  or  Adra. 

1861,  Bombardment  of  Porto  Novo  by  the  English,  whereupon 
the  king  seeks  Erench  protection.  F'rance  occupies  the  capital, 
but  evacuates  it  soon  afterwards. 

1882,  France  reclaims  the  old  Protectorate  rights  and  again 
occupies  Porto  Novo  and  Kotonu. 

Dahomey  became  a  state  in  the  first  half  of  the  17th  century 
(Capital,  Savi  or  Xavier  in  Agiuda),  destroyed  the  rival  and  neigh- 
bouring state,  Allada,  in  1724.  Portugal  has  a  resident-consul  in 

1876,  English  campaign  against  Dahomey. 

1883,  July  19th,  French  Protectorate  over  Porto  Seguro,  Ague, 
Grand  Popo.     July  25th,  Protection  treaty  with  Porto  Novo. 

1885,  June  10th,  Watshi  (North  of  Ague)  under  French 
protection.  —  December  24th,  Treaty  re  the  West  frontier.  — 
August  5th,  Protectorate  treaty  with  Dahomey,  which,  however,  is  not 
recognised  by  Portugal. 

1887,  Dec.  22th,  Portugal  renounces  the  Protectorate  taken  over 
on  the  5th  of  August  1885,  and  merely  retains  certain  commercial 


1889,  August  10th,  Decision  concerning  regulation  of  the  Eas- 
tern frontier  (Lagos);  October  3rd,  Treaty  relative  to  Porto  Novo  and 
Kotonu,  the  latter  being  occupied  by  France. 

1890,  French  campaign  against  Dahomey. 

1894,  French  campaign  and  conquest  of  Dahomey.  January  25th, 
Subjection  of  King  Behanzin. 

1895,  Organisation  of  the  colony:  Divided  into  two  States, 
dependent  upon  France. 

1896.  September  1st,  France  occupies  Wagadugu. 

1897.  July  26th,  Arrangement  between  France  and  Germany 
relating  to  Goorma  and  Sansane-Mangu. 

Seat  of  the  French  resident,  Abome  and  Porto  Novo  (Cotonou)      Varia. 
residence  of  one  of  the  kings,  Kelmina  (Kana). 

Niger  Coast  Protectorate. 

Niger  Coast  Frotedorate.  Official  title. 

This  territory  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  the  British  Niger 
territories.  (See  p.  38.)  It  includes  the  whole  coast  line  between 
Lagos  and  Cameroon,  with  the  exception  of  the  tract  between  For- 
cados  and  the  Brass  Rivers,  which  belongs  to  the  Niger  territories, 
besides  the  possessions  of  the  African  Association  founded  in  1889 
in  the  Oil  River  district. 

The  frontier  begins  (1896)  on  the  seacoast,  10  miles  North  Frontiers. 
West  of  the  Benin  River,  extends  along  tliis  river  as  far  as  Lagos 
Creek,  and  then  follows  and  includes  the  general  frontier  of  the 
Benin  territories,  following  the  Forcados  River  to  Gana,  excending 
10  miles  towards  the  North  East,  and  50  towards  the  North.  The 
Eastern  frontier  begins  between  Nun  and  Brass  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Niger  begins  towards  the  East,  and  extends  towards  Idu  to  the 
Oratsghi  or  Aegenni  River.  According  to  the  statement  of  tlie  Im- 
perial   Commissioner    and    Consul    General,    "these    boundaries    are 


subject  to  iiKuliticatioii  acconliug  to  local  nMiuireineiits."  The  frontier- 
line  toNvards  Cameroon  extends  from  tlie  commencement  of  the  Rio 
(lol  Key  rstuary  to  the  rapids  of  the  River  Cross  (9"  1'  North  Latitude), 
and  thence  "to  a  point  East  of  Y(dii  on  the  Benue  River.^'  Us 
details    lire  therefore  uncertain. 

Area.  At  present    nothing    definite    can  be  said  concerning  the  area 

and  population. 

Divisions.  Tlie  coast  of  the  territory  was  discovered  by  the  Portuguese  at 

rossossioii.    ^j^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^  ^j^^  -^-^j^  century,    but  for  three  centuries   it   was    only 

sparsely  colonised. 

History.  1854.  Baikie's  expedition  up  the  Niger.  The  origin  of  the  hrst 

British  settlement  on  the  Niger  River. 

1884,  Jnly,  Declaration  of  the  British  Protectorate  by  Consul 
Hewett,  after  he  had  concluded  treaties  with  the  chiefs  in  consequence 
of  Germany's  acquisition  of  the  Cameroon  district. 

1886,  July,  Issue  of  the  Niger  Company's  charter. 

1891,  Transference  of  government  to  the  Imperial  Commissioner 
and  Consul-General,  with  administrative  and  judicial  power.  Six  vice- 
consnls,  under  the  Consul-General,  are  stationed  along  the  rivers. 
The  Consul-General  has  no  fixed  residence. 

Niger  Territories. 

Offifiai  I  if  If.  Niger  Territories. 

V  I  imiii  r» 

Not  to  be  confounded  with  the  Niger  Coast  Protectorate 
(see  p.  36).  The  English  territory  of  the  so-called  Royal  Niger 
Company  —  founded  in  1879  as  the  United  African  Company,  re- 
named the  National  African  Company,   1882  —  lies  to  the  North  of 


the  Niger  Coast  Protectorate.  By  the  terms  of  the  Anglo-French 
Agreement  of  the  5th  of  Angtist  1890,  the  frontier  between  the  English 
and  French  Spheres  of  Interest  in  tlie  Niger  Territory  is  a  straight 
hne  from  tlie  town  Say  on  tlie  Niger  to  Barua  (Baruwa)  on  the 
Tsad  Lake,  "drawn  in  such  a  mannei-  as  to  comprise  within  the" 
"sphere  of  the  Niger  Company  all  that  which  fairly  belongs  to  the" 
"kingdom  of  Sokoto,  the  line  to  be  determined  by  commissioners  to" 
"be  appointed."  By  the  terms  of  the  Anglo-German  Agreement  of 
the  2ml  August  1886,  the  East  frontier  of  the  territory  extends  from 
a  point  on  the  River  Cross  about  9"  8'  East  Latitude  of  Green- 
wich, and  appears  to  be  marked  on  the  British  Admiralty  Chart 
as  "Rapids,"  to  the  point  on  the  Bennue  "three  miles  below  the 
centre  of  the  main  mouth  of  the  River  Faro,"  about  30  miles  East 
of  Yola,  and  from  this  ])oint  to  the  shore  of  the  Tsad  Lake, 
0"35'  East  of  the  Meridian  of  Kuka,  the  capital  of  Bornu.  (Anglo- 
German  treaty,  Nov.  loth  1893.) 

The  whole  territory  of  the  British  Protectorate  is  estimated  at       Area. 
500,000  square  miles. 

The  population  amounts  to  20 — 35  millions.  Popwiation. 

The  greater  part  embraces  the  dominion  of  the  Fuldn  or  Divisions. 
Felldtah  of  Sokoto,  whose  vassal  is  the  Sultan  of  Gando,  the 
greatest  of  the  Fellatah  chiefs.  How  far  the  territory  of  the 
"Em2)eror  of  Sokoto",  as  he  is  called  by  the  English,  extends,  and 
which  of  the  chiefs  towards  the  West  recognise  his  authority,  is  very 
uncertain.  The  Sokoto  territories  are  usually  said  to  contain 
219,500  square  miles  and  15  millions  inhabitants.  The  reigning  Sultan 
of  Sokoto  transferred  the  rights  of  civil,  criminal,  and  fiscal  juris- 
diction over  foreigners  to  the  Royal  Niger  Company.  Among  the  chiefs 
of  the  provinces  belonging  to  Sokoto,  there  is  a  sort  of  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  the  Sultan  of  Sokoto.  These  officials  attend  to  the 
payment  of  the  tribute,  and  are  in  regular  communication  with  the 


"Kmpeior".  Tlie  ofticials  of  the  Royal  Niger  Company  have 
coiicludeil  a  series  of  special  treaties  ("alternative  treaties")  with 
tlie  chiefs  or  "vassal  kings"  of  tlie  various  provinces.  To  the 
Niger  territories  in  the  West  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Niger  belongs, 
besides  Sokoto,  Ihrf/H  or  liftssauf/,  which  borders  upon  Dahomey 
in  tlie  Nortli  and  Admnmi  in  the  Soutli  East.  The  Capital  of  Sokoto 
is  at   present    Wurm  (15,000  inhabitants). 

History.  The  earliest  relations  of  England  with  the  tract  embracing  the 

I'"''"I''''"     nresent  Niger  territories  date  from  1822  and    the  following    years, 
i:..-uiiition.  Lieutenant  Clapperton  reaching  Sokoto  in  1825  and  remaining  there 
till  1827. 

Igg4_1885.  J.  Thomson's  treaties  with  the  Sultans  of  Sokoto 
and  Gando. 

1885,  May  7th.  The  South  East  frontier  regulation  with  Germany. 

1886,  July  10th.  Granting  of  the  Boyal  Charter  to  the  National 
Africa  Company  Limited,  founded  in  1882,  and  which  henceforth 
called  the  Boyal  Niger  Company  Chartered  and  Limited,  capital 
1  million  /.  18th  October  1887.  Extension  of  these  rights. 
From  1883—1886,  the  Company  concluded  about  SOO  treaties 
with  the  potentates  of  the  Niger  territories  in  Sokoto  and  Gando, 
from  which  they  derive  their  present  rights  of  possession. 

1880.  A  French  commercial  company  tried  to  compete  with 
the  British  on  the  Niger,  but  received  so  little  support  from  France 
that  they  were  compelled  to  abandon  their  project,  the  British 
company  having  already  in  1884  a  Niger  flotilla  of  25  steamers 
and  a  considerable  capital.  Since  then  Great  Britain  has  endeavoured 
to  firmly  establish  herself  on  the  middle  Niger  and  in  the  Bennue 
districts,  despite  the  simultaneous  attempts  of  France  and  Germany 
in  this  direction  on  the  ground  that  the  territory  "Sokoto"  is  in- 
determinable. In  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  Berlin  Treaty 
of  the  26th  of  Fehrtiary  1885,  the  navigation  on  the  Niger  is  free. 


1896,  January  15tli.     Franco-English  Convention. 

Capital:    Asaha.   The    military    head    quarters    is    at    Lokodja      ^'aiia. 
(Lokoja).    Government  by  a  "Civil  Council"  in  London. 

The  Independent  States  of  Central- 

Tshad  Lake  Countries. 

There  is  no  general  official  title. 

In  England,  the  Tsad  Lake  State,  Bornu,  is  looked  upon  as 
the  principal  of  the  Independent  States  of  the  Central- Soudan ;  then 
come  Wadai,  Kanem  and  Baghirmi,  all  bordering  on  the  Tshad 
Lake.  The  political  frontiers  of  these  States  are  undefinable. 

As  regards  Bornu,  this  state  belongs,  in  accordance  with  the 
Agreement  of  the  5th  August,  1890,  and  the  Anglo-German  treaty  of 
the  loth  Novemher,  1893,  to  the  British  Sphere  of  Interest.  The  state 
contains  has  about  50,000  square  miles  area  and  about  5  million  in- 
habitants. The  Soudan  conqueror,  Rabah,  an  officer  of  Ziber  Pasha 
from  the  Egyptian  Soudan,  governs  the  land  as  Mai  or  Sultan. 
Capital:  Kuka  (Kukaua),  50,000  to  60,000  inhabitants.  By  the 
terms  of  the  Anglo-French  Agreement  of  1893,  Bornu  is,  accor- 
ding to  the  English  official  statements,  excluded  from  the  sphere 
of  France  and  Germany. 

Wadal  is  at  present  the  most  powerful  state  on  the  Tshad 
Lake.  Even  the  celebrated  conqueror  Kabah  could  not  subjugate  it. 
The  area  amounts  to  172,000  square  miles  with  about  2  million  in- 
habitants. Kanem  on  the  North-East  side  of  Tshad  (30,000  square  miles, 
10,000  inhabitants,    capital,   Mao,  where   the   authorised   agent   of 

Count  Kinsky.  "The  Diplomatist's  Handbook  for  Africa".  " 


Wadai  resides),  is  tributary  to  Wadai,  as  is  also  Banli'nini.  which 
was  recently  recoiKiiiered  after  Rahah  had  deemed  it  expedient 
to  retire  towards  Bornu,  and  leave  the  occupied  country, 

Tlie  country  has  a  superficial  area  of  about  20,000  square  miles 
and  71,000  inhabitants:  and  borders  on  the  Tshad  Lake,  the  German 
possession  of  Cameroon,  the  French  colony  of  Haul  Ubangi,  and  in 
tlie  l^ast  on  AVadai.  The  suzerainty  of  Wadai  was  recognised  by 
the  Sultan  of  the  country  (then  residing  at  Massenja)  as  early 
as  1871. 

As  far  as  the  right  of  possession  is  concerned,  the  Tshad  Lake 
territory  is  a  district  of  Africa  over  which  there  has  been  much 
dispute,  and  the  order  maintained  there  at  present  is  not  likely  to 
last  long.  In  course  of  time  two  points  with  reference  to  possessory 
rights  came  to  the  front:  1.  Germany  endeavoured  to  touch  the  Tshad 
Lake  shore  from  Cameroon  across  the  Bennue,  and  attained  her 
object  by  an  Agreement  with  England  in  1890  and  1893  and  with 
France  in  1894.  2.  France  attained,  over  the  basin  of  the  Tshad 
Lake,  as  it  is  technically  expressed  in  France,  'Ma  reunion  sur  les 
rives  du  lac  Tshad  des  possessions  Fran^aises  du  Soudan,  de  I'Algerie 
et  du  Congo  Fran^ais,"  which  even  in  France  itself  was  considered 
as  Utopian  as  late  as  1890.  The  Convention  hetiveen  the  English 
Niger  Conqmny  and  Germany  of  15th  November  1893,  secured  the 
East  of  the  Tshad  Lake  territory  as  far  as  Dar  Fur  to  the  latter, 
wliich  security  has  naturally  a  theoretical  value  only.  In  consequence 
of  i\\&  Franco-German  Convention  of  the  4thFehruary  and  15th  March, 
1894,  Germany  was  granted  an  advantage  not  less  theoretical  in 
being  allowed  access  from  Cameroon  to  the  shores  of  the  Tshad  Lake. 
In  the  same  convention  of  the  4th  February,  1894,  France  also  suc- 
ceeded in  reaching  the  Tshad  Lake ;  Germany,  however,  also  reached 
the  Sanga  Valley  and  consequently  the  Congo.  To  all  appearances, 
France  has  gained  the  greatest  advantage,  having  not  only  right  of 
access  to  the  Tshad  Lake  along  the  Shari,  but  also  to  Mayo  Kebbi 


and  thereby  ''par  Benoiie",  as  it  is  called,  to  the  Niger,  on  which 
navigation  is  free.  It  is  however  doubtful  whether  Turkey  will  be 
able  to  reach  the  Tshad  Lake  across  the  Eastern  Sahara.  Doubtless 
England  will  in  future  reach  the  Tshad  Lake  either  across  the 
dominion  of  the  Mahdi  along  the  Nile,  or  from  the  East  African 
side  (Ibea,  which  see)  and  thus  endeavour  to  connect  her  West 
African  with  her  East  African  possessions  and  the  Nile  Countries 
across  the  Tshad  Lake. 


Protectorate  of  the  German  Empire  (Schutzgebiete  des  deutschen  Official  title. 
Reiches)  .•  Kamerun. 

The  Western  frontier  runs  (see  p.  39,  Niger  Territories)  in  accor-  Frontiers, 
dance  with  the  Convention  with  England  of  the  14th  April,  1893, 
from  the  right  bank  of  the  Calabar  River  (9"  8'  East  Longitude  of 
Greenwich,  "Ethiopian  Rapids")  towards  the  North  East  in  a  straight 
line  direct  to  Yola  in  Adamawa  (30  miles  East  of  this  town  lies  the 
boundary  point,  at  present  in  British  possession).  Thence  it  runs  to  a 
point  situated  on  the  left  shore  of  the  Bennue,  which  lies  5  km  below 
the  principal  mouth  of  the  River  Frao,  afterwards  taking  a  straight 
course  to  Ngala  on  the  South  border  of  Tshad  Lake.  The  coast  line 
is  198- 1  km,  in  length,  and  extends  from  theCampo  River  orEtembue, 
2°  14'  North  Latitude,  to  Rio  del  Rey,  4"  North  Latitude.  The 
Southern  frontier  extends  in  a  straight  line  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Campo  River  to  the  15"^  East  Longitude  of  Greenwich  (Agreement 
between  France  ami  Germany,  24th  December,  1885).  The  Eadcrn 
frontier  follows  roughly  speaking  the  15"  Longitude  East  of  Greenwich 
(along  the  Logone  to  the  Point  T^am^  and  thence  to  Biafara  on  the 
Mayo  Kebu  [Benue]),  to  the  shore  of  the  Tshad  Lake.  The  Franco- 
German  convention  of  the  15th  of  March  (4th  of  February)  1894  regu- 



lates  this  frontier  in  dotail.  and  allows  Germany  to  share  the 
upper  course  of  the  Sanga  River,  and  consequently  to  have 
access  to  the  Congo  T.asin.  It  is  further  due  to  this  Convention  that 
tlie  Northoiu  frontier  partly  follows  the  course  of  the  Shari.  Germany 
has  thus  an  interest  in  the  Shari  (Logoue)  basin.  Special  treaties  ivith 
EmjJamh  Apr'd  .l"Jth  ami  Mai/  7th,  1885;  July  27tli  and  August  2nd, 

Aioa.  The  area  amounts  to  495,000  sq.  km.  or  about  200,000  square 

miles,  according  to  British  estimates. 

I'Mpuiatio,,.  Topulation:  2,500,000.    1897  about  236  Europeans,  of  which 

161  are  Germans  and  36  English;    according  to  Englisli  estimates, 
about  4,570,000  inhabitants. 

Divisions.  The  provinces  belonging  to  this  Protectorate  are  chiefly  Cameroon 

Po^^sessiun.  .^g^j^  ^^j.^j^^  camarao,  said  to  be  the  name  of  a  small  kind  of  crab), 
Batanga  with  the  Kribi  Station  and  Lolodorf,  Tibati's  dominion  and 
the  greater  part  of  Adamawa,  together  with  the  districts  of  the  Mendif 
mountain  on  the  South  shore  of  the  Tshad  Lake.  (The  official  title- 
deed  says  ''Schutzgebiet"  (Protectorate). 

History.  Discovered  by  the  Portuguese  in  the  15th  Century.  The  coast  of 

Treaties.      Q^jj^gj-Q^ji   remained    uninhabited    for   a   long   time.     Later,  British 

missionaries  settled  there,    and  were  followed  by  traders  from  most 

of  the  sea-faring  nations.  Manifold  disputes  ensued  among  Hamburg 

firms,  French  in  Batanga  and  English  as  to  possession. 

1861,  Ptichard  Burton's  and  Gustav  Mann's  journeys  in  Cameroon. 

1871  and  following  years.  Buchholz,  Reichenow  and  Luehder 
in  Cameroon  and  Calabar  territories. 

1877,  Ross,  Grenfell  and  T.  J.  Comber's  explorations  in  Cameroon. 

1884,  Rear- Admiral  Kuorr  lands  with  185  soldiers,  captures 
Fetishtown  and  Hickorytown  and  subjugates  the  chief,  Bell.  — 
July  14th,  Dr.  Gustav  Nachtigal  placed  the  possessions  of  the  Hamburg 
firms  under  German  protection. 


1885,  January,  German  flag  hoisted  in  Batauga.  —  May  7th, 
Treaty  with  England  about  tlie  Northern  frontier  and  again  August 
2ud,  1886,  and  July  1st,  1890. 

1887,  March  29,  Ambas  Bay  and  Victoria  handed  over  to  Germany. 

1885—1896,  The  journeys  of  the  explorers,  R.  Flegel,  Kund, 
Tappenbeck,    Kling,    v.  Stetten,    Dr.  Zintgraff,    Lieutenant   Morgen 
Baron  von  Uechtritz,  Dr.  Passarge    and   others  led  to  an  extension 
of  the  possessions  in  the  Interior. 

The  protectorate  is  ruled   by  an  Imperial  Governor,    who  also       Varia. 
governs  Togoland  administratively  and  judicially,  and  has  his  residence 
at  Cameroon.     Missionary  station :    Victoria. 

Spanisli  Possession  in  the 
Gulf  of  Guinea  and  on  the  Gaboon. 

In  the  Gulf  of  Guinea,  Spain  possesses  the  Islands,  Fernando 
Fo,  1998  sq.  km.,  25,000  inhabitants,  13  to  the  sq.  km.,  and  AnnoUn 
("Good  Year",  17  sq.  km.,  3000  inhabitants,  176  to  the  sq.  km.)  of 
which  the  former  was  discovered  by  the  Portuguese  in  1471,  and 
the  latter  on  New  Year's  Day  1498  by  Juan  de  Santaren.  Both 
islands  were  ceded  to  Spain  in  1778. 

Since  the  1st  of  March  1843,  Spain  has  laid  claim  to  the  so-called 
Corisco  Bay  with  the  islands,  Corisco  and  Elohy,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Muni  and  Campo,  and  a  small  part  of  the  adjoining  territory, 
Han  Juan.  Corisco  island  has  an  area  of  14  scj.  km. ;  the  whole  of 
the  territory  claimed  by  Spain,  2200  S(i.  km.  (according  to  English 
estimate,  150  square  miles),  with  30,000  inhabitants.  The  Spaniards 
claim    the  right  to  trade  with  this  territory. 


I'laiicc  is  tho  only  loiuitry  wliich  recognises  the  Spauisli  claim  to 
the  wliolo  tonitory.  S]);uii  Iiowi'Vlm-  lays  exclusive  claim  to  a  i)art 
o(  the  tenitin-y  not  recognised  by  France,  from  the  Cape  Santa  Clara 
to  the  Interior,  of  about  nO^OOO  sq.  km.  (British  estimates,  ()9,()00 
S(iuare  miles)  with  a  poi)ulation  of  500,000,  which  was  acquired 
by  t/ic  fmifics  with  the  chiefs,  OafAjher  1884.  Indeed,  at  one 
time,  Spain  was  believed  to  lay  claim  to  150,000  sq.  km.  in  this 
part  of  Africa.  The  point  remains  unsolved.  —  The  territory 
is  administratively  connected  with  Fernando  P6. 

Portup'iiese  Possession  in  the  Gulf 
of  Guinea. 

Since  the  glorious  times  of  Portuguese  discovery  in  the  15th 
century,  Portugal  has  possessed  St.  Thomas  Island  in  the  Gulf  of 
Guinea  {EJia  de  Sao  Thome,  929  sq.  km.,  18,000  inhabitants  [1895, 
presumably  20,000],  or  20  to  the  sq.  km.)  and  the  Princes  Island 
{Hha  do  Principe,  151  sq.  km.,  3000  inhabitants,  19  to  the  sq.  km.). 
According  to  British  estimates  a  total  surface  of  only  454  square 
miles  and  21,040  inhabitants.  This  estimate  however,  dating  from 
the  years  1878—1879,  is  too  low. 

French  Conpfo. 

.Mfiriai  title.  Congo    Francais    (France    Equatoriale,    first    part),    and  Haul 

Uhangui  (second  part). 
Fr..ntiei-.  ^he  French  possession  on  the  coast  of  Lower  Guinea,  bordering  in 


the  south  on  the  German  protectorate  (Convention  24th  December  1885) 
embraces  the  districts  on  the  Gaboon,  Ogowe,  Kuilu  or  Niari,  and 


extends  along  tlie  coast  (Loango  Coast)  to  the  Massabi  (5"  South 
Latitude)  on  the  frontier  of  Portuguese  Cabinda.  The  frontiers  are  defined 
in  detail  by  the  Convention  letween  France  and  Portugal  on  the  12th  May 
1886  and  25tli  May  1891.  The  frontier,  according  to  the  Convention 
between  France  and  the  Association  Internationale  Africaine  (Berlin 
Conference  26th  February  1885)  runs  from  the  Easterly  point  of 
the  Cabinda  territory  on  the  Upper  Tshiloango,  10"  20'  East  of 
Paris,  and  follows  this  river  until  opposite  Manyanga  on  the  Congo.  It 
then  follows  the  right  bank  of  the  Congo  as  far  as  the  junction  of 
the  Ubangui  (Convention  letween  France  and  the  Independent  Congo 
States  29th  April,  1887),  continuing  its  course  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Mbomu,  and  along  the  right  bank  into  the  Niam  Niam  countries, 
between  the  seats  of  Semio  and  Ndoruma.  The  eastern  frontier  passes 
through  the  territory  of  the  Bongo  and  Dar  Fertit  (Agreement  letween 
England  and  Germany,  Novemler,  1893),  as  far  as  Dar  Fur.  The 
northern  frontier  of  the  French  possession  is,  with  the  exception  of 
the  tract  on  the  Tshad  Lake  (see  page  40),  not  determined  upon.  The 
neighbouring  state  is  Wadai  with  its  vassal  lands  of  Baghirmi.  As 
regards  the  Western  frontier  towards  Cameroon,  see  page  42.  The 
Kuilu,  Alina,  Likuala  and  Sanga  Valleys  join  the  basins  of  the  Gaboon 
and  Ogowe  rivers,  which  with  the  aforesaid  countries  along  the  coast 
form  the  territory  of  the  first  colony  (Congo  Fran^ais).  The  territory 
of  the  second  colony  (Haut  Ubangui)  includes  the  countries  extending 
along  the  right  banks  of  the  Ubangui  and  its  tributaries  upon  the  right 
bank  and  chiefiy  the  basin  of  the  Shari  (1  Logone)  and  the  Niam  Niam 
countries  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Mbomu. 

The  area  measures  650,000  sq.  km.  (1891,  officially  570,000       Area, 
sq.  km.);  according  to  British  calculation  300,000  square  miles,  of 
which  about  half  belongs  to  each  colony. 

Tlie  number  of  inhabitants  is  5,900,000  (officially  1891,  about  Population. 
5  millions;  1897,  10  millions).    There  are  only  about  800  Europeans 
beside  the  garrison. 


Posst'ssitm.  In  sudi  an  extonsivo  province,    only    tlie    stations    on    or  near 

ilu'    coast    can    be    considered    as    actnal    possesion;    tlie    reniaindev 
comes  nnder  the  titles  Protectorate  and  Sphere  of  Interest. 

iii,i,.,N  The  Loango  and  daboon  coasts  were  discovered  by  the  Portuguese 

in  tiie   15th  century  who  expcuted  the  natives  «is  slaves.   1521,  the 
tirst  mission  established  tlieie. 

1839,  February  9th,  Bouet  Villaumez  obtained  the  Gaboon 
territory  by  treaty  with  the  chiefs. 

1841,  Appearance  of  English  and  French  ships  to  suppress  the 

slave  trade. 

1849,  Founding  of  the  commercial  station  Libreville,  the  capital 

of  the  territory. 

1850—1865,  Paul  Belloni  du  Chaillu's  expedition. 

1862,  France  acquired  the  Ogowe  territory. 

1873,  German  Loango  expedition  under  Dr.  Paul  Gussfeldt. 

1877,  Stanley's  navigation  of  the  Congo. 

1880,  Pierre  Savorgnan  de  Brazza  commences  operations  on 
the  Ogowe.  Treaties  with  chiefs  September  10th,  October  30th 
1880  —  ratified  November  30th  1882  --  March  12th  1883,  June 
21st  1883,  December  loth  1883,  August  25th  1884. 

1885,  February  26th,  Berlin  Conference.  Becemhcr-  24th, 
Agreement  with  Germany  relative  to  the  Northern  frontiers. 

1886,  April  27th  and  June  22nd,  decree,  by  means  of  which 
the  colonies  Gaboon  and  Congo  became  organised. 

1891,  April  30th,  official  title,  "Congo  Fran^ais". 
1894,  The  French  Congo  divided   into  two  separate  colonies  by 
a  decree  of  the  President  of  the  French  Republic  dated  July  13th. 

In  the  general  records  of  the  Berlin  Conference,  26th  Fehruary 
1885,  Article  I,  1—8  "General"  and  "Free  Trade  District  in  the 
Congo";  Article  III,  10  and  12,  "The  Neutrality";  Article  IV, 
13—25,  relate  to  the  navigation  of  the  Congo. 


1884,  Ajyril  .23rd,  French  Convention  with  King  Leopold  II, 
according  to  which  France  received  the  right  of  preemption  —  le 
droit  de  preemption  —  over  the  territories  of  the  Congo  States. 

1885,  December  24th,  Convention  between  Germany  and  France 
re  the  Northern  and  North- Western  frontiers. 

1886,  May  12th,  Convention  between  France  and  Portugal  re 
frontier  regulation  North  of  the  Congo  and  South  of  tlie  Senegal 
(Articles  3  and  4  re  the  Congo). 

1887,  April  29th,  Treaty  with  the  Congo  State  about  Ubangui. 
1894,  March  15th,     Convention  with  Germany  re  North-East 


Both  colonies  are  governed  by  a  ,,commissaire  du  gouvernement  (Toverument. 
de  la  Republique  Fran^aise",  who  in    the  Congo    has  his  residence 
in  Libreville  (200  Europeans);   in  Haut  Ubangui  at  various  places. 

By  means  of  the  Tsad  Lake,  the  French  possession,  Sphere  of  Varia. 
Interest  and  Protectorate  on  the  banks  of  the  Congo  and  Ubangui 
are  connected  with  the  similar  possessions  in  the  West  Soudan,  on  the 
Senegal,  in  the  West  Sahara,  Algiers,  and  Tunis.  Thus  the  "reunion" 
(page  41)  which  French  politicians  and  patriots  have  so  earnestly 
strived  for  has  become  "un  fait  accompli". 

The  Congo  State. 

L'J^tat  Independant  du  Congo.  Official  title. 

The  Western  frontier  is  formed  by  the  Atlantic  where  tlie  Congo    frontiers, 
discharges  itself  into  the  ocean.  The  North  frontier  leaves  the  ocean 
South  of  Povo  grande  near  tlie  Juba  Factory,  and  runs  according  to 
the  convention  betiveen  Fortugal  and  the  Congo  State  of  February  and 

Count    Kinsky,    "Thn  Diplomatist's  Handbook  for  Africa".  • 


March  ('intli  ^lay)  1801  in  tlio  direction  of  Tsliiloaiigo,  touches  tho 
Congo  foUows  tlio  course  of  tliis  river  and  of  tlie  Uhangui,  and,  thirdly 
tln>  left  hank  of  the  INIbomu  as  far  as  the  point  where  the  latter 
intersects  the  fV  North  Latitude,  in  accordance  with  an  agreement 
with  France,  dated  August,  14th,  1894.  It  passes  thence  South  to  the 
oO"  East  of  Greenwiclu  tinally  reaching  the  Latitude  of  the  Nile  Station 
Lado.  after  which  it  hends  eastwards  towards  Lado  itself,  and  pursues 
its  course  along  the  White  Nile  to  the  Albert  Nyanza.  The  Congo  State 
thus  encloses  the  left  of  Emin  Pasha's  former  province,  which  by  the 
(Kjrrcmrnf  with  En  (/land  and  France  12tli  May  and  14th  Aufimt, 
IS 94,  is  practically  leased  to  Leopold  II  during  his  lifetime 
("cedee  a  bail").  These  two  treaties  deserve  attention.  The  former 
was  concluded  with  England  only.  By  it,  the  territory  as  far  as  the 
Westerly  watershed  of  the  Nile  is  leased  to  the  Congo  State. 
France  opposed  this  treaty,  and  compelled  the  Congo  State  to  keep 
to  the  convention  of  the  14th  August,  by  which  this  English  Sphere 
of  except  the  i)art  of  Emin's  province,  is  not  recognised  by  France. 
The  treaty  with  England,  12th  May,  1894,  still  remained  in  force; 
but  in  consequence  of  the  French  Convention  of  the  14th  of  August, 
1894,  it  was  not  acted  upon.  Owing  to  these  circumstances,  the 
frontier  in  this  part  is  not  fixed.  The  frontier  returns  from  the 
West  shore  of  the  Albert  Lake  to  the  30"  Longitude  East  of 
Greenwich  and,  following  the  same,  turns  at  the  North  end  of  the 
Tanganyika  Lake,  running  along  its  western  shore  (declaration  of 
the  ffeneral  administrator  of  the  Con/jo  State,  Fehrmiry  1885)  and 
thence  along  the  centre  of  the  Meru  Lake  from  the  northernmost  point 
of  the  basin,  thus  cutting  the  Meru  in  two.  It  next  follows  the 
Luapula,  which  discharges  itself  into  the  lake,  as  far  as  its  outlet 
in  the  Bangweolo  Lake.  After  following  the  watershed  a  short 
distance  to  the  30"  East  Longitude  of  Greenwich,  the  frontier 
bends  round  towards  the  West  in  a  winding  line  towards  the 
watershed  of  the  Congo,  thereby  enclosing  the  province  Katanga.  The 
South  frontier  runs  from   the  Bangweolo    to  the  Dilolo  Lake,  turns 


then  (Convention  of  Congo  State  ivith  Portugal  30th  Dec.  18S6  and 
25th  May  1891)  towards  the  Noith  to  the  Kassai ;  thence  along  the 
7"  South  Latitude  to  Kuilu,  along  the  8"  South  Latitude  to  the  Kuango, 
and  finally  parallel  to  Nokki  to  the  sea-coast.  (Conventions  of  Congo 
State  with  Portugal,  14th  February,  1885  and  24th  March  1894.) 
The  frontier  is  settled  and  unbroken,  i.  e.,  apart  from  the  circumstance 
that  some  of  the  land  is  leased  for  the  lifetime  of  King  Leopold  II. 

The   superficial   area   is   2,252,700    sq.    km.;    about   900,000       Area, 
square  miles,  British  authorities. 

The  population  is  estimated  at  15  millions.  1895,  1325  Europeans,    Population. 
about  839  of  which  Belgians.    The  English  give  30  miUions,  but  the 
detailed  census  now  being  taken  in  the    separate    districts  does  not 
appear  to  confirm  this  figure. 

The  countries  of  the  Congo  State    embrace   almost   the    entire     i>i visions. 
Congo  River  territory  with  its    tributaries,     and    particularly  Urua, 
Kasongo,  Katanga,  Ulala  and  others.  They  are  divided  into  districts, 
each  of  which  has  its  commissioner. 

Direct    possession,    but    only  a  small    part    occupied.     In    the   Possession, 
former  province  of  Emin  Pasha,  the  territory  is  leased  by  England  (?). 

1876,  September  12tli.    Conference  of  the  ^'Association  Inter-     History. 
nationale  Africaine"  in    Brussels    to    consider   the  ways    and  means 

to  civilise  Central  Africa. 

1877,  Navigation  of  tlie  Congo  by  Stanley. 

1878,  November  25th.  l\ninding  of  the  "Comite  d'Etudes  du 
Haut  Congo". 

1882,  Founding  of  the  "Association  Internationale  du  Congo". 

1884,  February  26th.  Lord  Granville's  Agreement  with  Portugal, 
by  which  the  South-West  coast  of  Africa  between  5^12'  and  5"  18' 
North  Latitude  is  recognised  as  Portuguese  territory,  whereby  the 
territories  of  the  Association  Internationale  would   have  been   com- 


pletely  cut  oft'  fiom  the  sea.  Tliis  tiraty  ^Yas  not  ratified  by  the 
Powers,  and  France  made  use  of  it  to  occupy  the  territory.  —  April, 
22nd,  tlie  territories  of  tlie  Association  recognised  by  the  American 
Union  as  a  stute. 

1884,  April  28rd.  In  a  private  treaty  with  Leopold  II,  as  head 
of  the  Association  Internationale  Africaine,  France  receives  the  right 
of  preemption  of  his  territories  on  the  Congo,  The  question  arose 
later  whether  F'rance  possessed  this  right  before  or  after  Belgiuui; 
but  it  was  settled  in  1895  by  Belgium  being  given  the  preference 
till  1900,  in  which  year  she  will  have  to  make  a  new  agreement. 
—  November,  8th.  Treaty  with  Germany. —  December,  IGth,  recog- 
nition of  the  Congo  State  by  England. 

1884,  November  1st,  till  February  26th,  1885;  Berlin  Conference. 
Founding  of  the  Congo  State  and  Free  Trade  Territonj  for  20  years. 
(Passing  of  the  Congo  Act.)  The  territory  in  question  is  enclosed  by 
a  line  which,  starting  atCette  Cama  in  the  French  Congo  territories, 
takes  in  the  Ogowe  Territory  and  the  greater  part  of  the  Cameroon 
Hinterland,  includes  the  Ubangi  Uelle  territory,  and  terminates  at 
the  Indian  Ocean  below  the  5'^  North  Latitude.  This  frontierline 
begins  in  the  South  at  Ambriz  in  the  Portuguese  Colony  Angola, 
follows  the  course  of  the  Loge,  touches  the  source  of  the  Kassai 
and  Congo,  bends  a  little  South  of  the  Bangweolo  Lake,  touches  the 
lower  course  of  the  Zambesi  and  follows  this  stream  to  its  mouth 
in  the  Indian  Ocean.  —  5th  December.  Agreement  with  France 
relative  to  the  Licona  Question. 

1889,  August  2nd.  King  Leopold's  will,  in  which  he  bequeaths 
all  his  rights  of  sovereignty  after  his  death  to  Belgium. 

1890,  Brussels  Conference,  which  allows  the  Congo  State  to 
levy  some  taxes  and  duties  in  the  free  trade  territory. 

1890,  July  21st.  Territories  of  the  Congo  State  declared 
inalienable,  Belgium  having  already  on  tiie  8rd  (25th  and  30th) 
July,  1890,  retained  the  right  to  annex  the  same  after  the  expiration 
of  10  years. 


1895.  Right  of  preemption  of  France  regulated,  by  which  it 
stands  second  only  to  that  of  Belgium  till  1900. 

Conventions  for  the  purpose  of  frontier  regulations  have  been 
agreed  upon  between  the  Congo  State  and  neighbouring  states  as  follows : 
{a)  1883,  July  2nd,  with  Portugal,  ratified  24th  March  1884. 
ip)  1884,  November  8th,  with  Germany. 

(c)  1884,  December  16th,  with  Great  Britain. 

[d)  1884,  December  27th,  with  the  Netherlands  relative  to  the 
possession  of  the  numerous  Dutch  factories  on  the  Congo. 

{e)  1885,  February  5th  (22nd  November),  with  France  re  the 
North  and  East  Frontiers. 

(/j  1885,  February  14th,  with  Portugal. 

{g)  1887,  April  29th,  with  France. 

Qi)  1890,  June  10th,  with  Portugal  (Lunda). 

(/)  1891,  May  25th,  with  Portugal  (1st  August,  neutral  treaty), 
22nd  November  with  France. 

(./)  1893,  June  23rd,  (1894,  March  24th)  with  Portugal. 

{k)  1894,  May  12th,  with  England  relative  to  the  leasing  of 
the  Bahr  el  Ghazal  territory  and  the  Western  part  of  the  former 
province  of  Emin  Pasha. 

{I)  1894,  August  14th,  renewed  convention  with  France,  which 
however  has  become  unfeasible,  although  the  Northern  frontier  was 
regulated  by  its  means. 

The  central  government  has  its  seat  at  Brussels,   and  consists  (ic^vonniH'iit. 
of  the   King   of  the    Belgians    and    a    state    secretary    for    foreign,     ^^^.^^ 
financial,  and  home  affairs,    under  whom  are  a  "Tresorier  General" 
and  three  general  secretaries  for  the  departments,  foreign  and  juridical, 
financial  and  home.    A  High  Court  of  Appeal  also  exists,  and  can 
be  convened  when  required. 

The  lo(-al  government  is  formed  by  the  Governor  General,  his 
representative,   the  state  inspector,    general  secretary,    administrator 


of  jiistiio.    tiiiamial    director   and    tlie    coininaiuU'r    of   the  garrison. 
Soat   (if  the  hteai  i-overniiu'nt,    lioma. 

Portuo'iiose  Possessio]!  in  LoAver-rniinoa, 

"tii.iai  titir.  Angola  is  the  ofticial  title  of  tliese  Portngnese  Colonies,  but  it 

is  also  used  ofhcially  and  independently  for  the  integral  parts  of 
the  same,  viz.,  Cabinda,  Congo,  Amhriz,  Loanda,  Angola,  Benguella 
a nd  Mossdmmedes. 

Kroiitifi-s.  Xhe   possession    is   divided   into   two  separate  territories.     The 


i{egulaition>.  Smaller.  Cabinda,  North  of  the  mouth  of  the  Congo,  stretches  from 
the  Juba  Factory  on  the  coast  to  Massabi  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Loango  River,  100  km.  Concerning  the  frontiers  in  the  Interior 
see  page  46.  The  part  extending  South  of  the  lower  course  of 
the  Congo,  the  Northern  frontier  of  which  is  described  on  page  49, 
passes  along  the  coast  from  the  left  bank  of  the  Congo  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Cunene  River,  a  stretch  of  littoral  of  1400  km.  (Treaties  tvith 
the  Congo  State,  11th  February,  1885,  and  with  France,  12th  May,  1886.) 
'i'he  Sotithern  frontier  follows  the  lower  course  of  the  Cunene  to  the 
Humbe  Cataracts,  takes  then  an  easteily  direction  to  Mpaschi 
on  the  Cubango,  and  follows  its  course  to  20''  East  Longitude  of 
Greenwich  (Ndara).  (Agreement  between  Fortugal  and  Germany 
December,  30th,  1880.) 

According  to  the  Anglo-Fortuguese  Convention  August  20th  1890, 
the  "modus  vivemli"  November  14th  1890,  and  the  Convention  June, 
11th,  1891,  the  East  frontier,  which  follows  the  20"  meridian  East 
of  Greenwich  to  that  point  where  it  meets  the  Kassai  River,  is  of 
a  provisional  character.  The  line  then  follows  the  Kassai  current 
towards  the  North,  as  described  on  page  50.  By  the  Anglo-Fortuguese 


Convention,  August   20th    1890,    the    Barotse   Laud   was   added   to 

The  area   araoimts   to    1,315,450   sq.    km.   (Enghsh  estimates,        Area. 
457,500  square  miles). 

The   number   of  inhabitants   is  about  2,400,000  (according  to  Population. 
English  estimates  only  2  millions;  other  authorities  as  low  as  1,315,460). 
The  Portuguese  give  the  figures  as  about  half  a  million. 

The    territory    embraces    the    former    Congo    Kingdom,    whose    Divisions, 
ruler,  Don  Pedro  V,    was   declared    vassal  to  Portugal,    the  Lunda 
Country   (Country    of  Muata  Jamwo,    Portugal's   protectorate    since 
1886),  Loanda,  Angola,  Benguella,  Mossamedes,  the  Gangella  teri'i- 
tory,  Amboella,  Barotse,  etc. 

The  provinces  on  the  coast  and  those  extending  to  15*'  Lon-  Possession, 
gitude  East  of  Greenwich  are  actually  considered  as  direct  possession 
of  the  Portuguese;  further  East  there  is  a  Protectorate  and  Sphere 
of  Interest.  Privileged  companies  lease  parts  of  the  territory  in  the 
Interior,  which  apparently  are  very  favourable  for  opening  up.  The 
same  is  the  case  in  Mossamedes  and  elsewhere. 

The  Angola  Coast  was  discovered  in  1486   by  the  Portuguese,      History. 
Diego  Coao,  and  soon  afterwards  colonised  by  the  Portuguese. 

1578,  The  town  Sao  Paolo  de  Loanda  founded. 

1640,  Blockade  of  the  coast  and  siege  of  Sao  Paolo  de  Loanda 
by  the  Dutch  fleet  under  Hautebeen  and  expulsion  of  the  Portuguese, 
who  however  recovered  the  land  from  Brazil  in  1650  and  have  re- 
mained in  undisturbed  possession  ever  since. 

A  Portuguese  Governoi*  General  resides  in  Sao  Folo  de  Loanda,       Varia. 
who  receives  his  orders  from  Lisbon. 

A    circumstance  worthy    of  particular   notice   is  that  Portugal 
did     claim     the     whole     South     African     territory     between     the 


(i"  anil  18^' South  Latitude  on  tlie  West  side,  and  tlioir'aiid 
28"  South  Latitude  on  tlie  Last  across  the  C'ontineut.  Tiie  Britisli 
destroyed  the  dream  of  an  "Inipero  Portuguezo  Sudafricano"  hy 
iiravitatiiiii  tVdUi  Cape  Cidouy  towards  Kgyi)t.  It  cannot  he  denied 
that  Portuguese  merciiants,  the  so-caHed  '^roniheiros",  liad  ah-eady 
in  aiKient  times  traversed  the  extensive  territory  of  Angola  to 
Mozauilti<ine.  although  this  tract  has  never  been  governed  or  occupied 
hy  the  Portuguese. 

Ascension^  Tristan  da  Cunha,  Walfish 


Ascension  —  discovered  on  Ascension  Day,  1502,  by  Juan  deNova, 
(hence  the  name)  —  7"  57'  South  Latitude  and  15"  Longitude  West 
of  Greenwich,  750  Miles  North-West  of  St.  Helena,  with  an  area 
of  88  sq.  km.  (35  square  miles),  and  140  inhabitants,  is  in  British 
possession.  Chief  Town,  Georgetoum.  1815,  occupied  by  British  troops 
to  guard  Napoleon;  since  then  British. 

Tristan  da  Cunha,  37^  6'  South  Latitude  and  12^  1'  West  Longi- 
tude of  Greenwich,  described  officially  as  a  small  group  of  islands 
consisting  of  Tristan  da  Cunha,  which  the  Portuguese  discoverer  named 
after  himself,  Gcmgh's  Island,  Inaccessible  and  Nightingale  Islands, 
rocky  islands  in  British  possession  with  61  inhabitants,  (1894). 
1815,  received  an  English  garrison. 

The  British  possession  in  Walfish  Bay,  with  the  frontiers 
which  were  more  accurately  fixed  on  the  August,  7th,  1884,  embraces 
the  small  territory  at  the  approach  to  German  South  West  Africa, 
almost  at  the  Tropic  of  Capricorn.  It  has  an  area  of  1320  sq.  km. 
or   430   square    miles,    and    768  inhabitants   (1891,  31  Europeans) 


or  1-79  per  square  mile.  The  territory,  which  has  been  British 
since  1879,  was  added  in  1884  to  the  Cape  Colony.  Fosscssion 
Island,  South  of  Waltish  Bay,  together  with  8  to  10  uninhabited 
islands  scattered  along  the  coast,  also  belongs  to  the  English.  For 
particulars  concerning  Waliish  Bay,  see  also  Cape  Colony,  p.  59. 

St.  Helena. 

An  island  of  volcanic  origin  lying  South  of  16'*  South  Latitude, 
153  sq.  km.  or  47  square  miles,  with  4116  inhabitants  (1891),  33  to 
the  sq.  km.  Population  in  1895  has  fallen  to  3900  inhabitants,  inclusive 
the  garrison  of  179  men.  Exile  of  Napoleon  I,  1815 — 1821;  dis- 
covered by  the  Portuguese  in  1502,  but  not  colonised  by  them  and 
soon  afterwards  deserted.  In  1600  the  Dutch  took  possession  of  the 
Island,  and  occupied  it  till  1673,  when  it  was  taken  over  by  the 
British  East  India  Company.  Since  1815,  it  has  been  incorporated 
into  the  British  Empire.  There  is  much  emigration  to  Cape  Colony. 
Chief  town :  Jamestotvn  (2300  inhab.). 

German  Sontli  West  Africa. 

rrotcdorate  of  the  German  Empire  (Schutzgebicte  des  deutschen  official  title. 
Reiches):  SiicUvest-Jfrika;  German  Bamaraland,  German  Namaland. 

The  Western  frontier  extends  along  the  Atlantic  coast,  (excepting  K,„nti.'iv 
Waltish  Bay  which  is  British),  from  the  mouth  of  the  Cunene  Pviver 
a  di.stance  of  1500  km.  (930  miles)  to  the  mouth  of  the  Orange 
River.  The  right  bank  of  the  Orange  River  to  20"  East  Longitude 
of  Greenwich  forms  the  South  frontiei-.  The  East  frontier  is 
formed,  in  the  terms  of  the  Memorandum  of  December  1884,  and  the 

II  8 

Count   Kinsley:  "The  Diiiloinatist's  Ifandl.nok  for  Africa  . 



Am/Jo-Gcrmiui  trratii,  Jsf  Jiihj  1'^f)0,  l)y  tlic  -iOth  Meridian  East  of 
Greeiiwirli  as  far  as  tlio  22"  South  Latitude.  Here  tlie  frontier 
bends  towards  tlie  East,  till  it  meets  the  21'  Longitude  East  of 
Greenwich,  follows  tliis  to  the  18"  South  Latitude,  where  it  crosses 
the  Tshobe  River,  and  follows  its  course  to  tlie  point  wliere  tlie 
latter  discharges  itself  into  the  Zambesi.  The  North  Frontier  (Por- 
tuguese-German treaty  30th  December  188G)  is  formed  by  the  course 
of  the  Cunene  as  far  as  the  Ilumbe  cataracts ;  it  then  continues  in  a 
straight  line  to  jNIpashi,  on  the  Cubango,  along  the  right  bank  of 
this  river  to  Ndara  on  the  Okavango,  and  to  the  Katima  Falls  on 
the  Zambesi.  As  the  course  of  the  Okavango  has  been  inaccurately 
surveyed,  the  demarcation  of  the  tract  of  laiul  towards  tlie  Zambesi 
is  uncertain.     It  still  awaits  an  exact  settlement. 

The  area  is  estimated  at  835,100  sq.  km.  or  320,000  square  miles. 

Population.  The    population    numbers    200,000 ;     1896,    2050    Europeans 

(about  700  Germans  and  300  p]nglishmen). 

i»ivi-i..n<  The  territory  includes  Gross  Nama- (Namaqua)  land  and  Damara- 

land  with  the  Kaoko  and  Ambolaud,  Liideritzland,  Upingtonia,  and 
several  other  tracts. 

Possifssi..ii.  Direct  possession ;  only  a  small  part,  however,  is  actually  occupied. 

The  opening  up  is  left  to  different  companies :  West  Africa  Company 
Lim.,  South-West  Africa  Company,  German  Colonial  Company  for 
South-Wcst  Africa,  Kharaskhoma  Exploring  and  Prospecting  Syndicate, 
the  Hanseatic  Land,  Mining  and  Trading  Company  for  South-West 
Africa,  South  African  Territories  Company  and  several  othei's. 

W'^^"''^  This    extensive   territory  was   until  1880   not    under  European 

influence,  A  stretch  of  littoral  150  km.  broad,  from  the  Orange 
River  to  the  26"  South  Latitude,  which  was  acquired  by  tiie  Bremen 
merchant,  F.  A.  E.  Liideritz,  on  the  1st  of  May  and  25th  of  August 
1883,    and    further  acquisitions  by  German    subjects    on   the   coast 


Nuitli  of  26"  to  Cape  Frio,  with  the  exception  of  Walfish  Bay,  were 
placed  under  German  protection  on  the  24th  April,  1884.  On  the 
12th  August,  1884  additions  were  made,  the  coast-line  being  exten- 
ded from  26"  South  Latitude  to  Cape  Frio.  Recognised  by  England, 
22nd  September. 

1884,  Decemler,  Memorandum,  concerning  the  frontier  towards     Treaties.. 
British    Bechuanaland.      Treaties    with    the     chiefs,    August    18th,    i{,.nj„iation. 
October  11th  and  October  28th. 

1885,  Treaties  with  the  cJilefs  in  January  and  March,  July  28th, 
September  2nd,  September  15th,  October  21st  and  November  3rd. 

1886,  December  30th,  Treaty  with  Fortugal  (published  21st  July 
1887)  re  Northern  frontier.     Upingtonia  under  German  Protection. 

1890,  Jnhj  1st,  Treaty  ivith  England  re  Eastern  frontier. 
1893—1895,  War  with  Hendrik  Witbooi. 

Governed  by  an  Imperial  Commissioner  who  resides  at  Great- 

The  Imperial  Government   intends  by  degrees   to  declare   it  a  Goverinuent. 


crown  kind,  after  having  fixed  the  limits  of  the  native  reservations 
and  to  divide  it  into  farms  of  about  1000  to  10,000  hectars  each. 

Cape  Colonj. 

Cape  Colony  (Cape  of  Good  Hope).  i}nwv.x\  tit  it-. 

To  the  Cape  Colony  belongs  the  colony  proper,  i.  e.,  those  lands    *^''"J»|'^''"**- 
which  before  the  time  of  the  reorganisation  in  1875  formed  a  part   i>„p,iiiiiioii. 
of  the  same.    It  has  an  area  of  191,416  square  miles  and  a  popu- 
lation of  956,485  (1891).'=)     These  are 

*)  statesman's  Year  Book,  1897,  fol.  170  and  Dr.  A.  Petermann's  Mittheilungen 
from  Justus  Perthes,  Geographical  Institute,  Gotha,  1896,  fol.  89  etc. 


burl'aco  in 
square  miles 







Colony  proper  .  .  . 






West  Griqualand   . 






East  Griqualand    . 






Tembnland   .  .  . 






Tianskei     .... 






Walfish  Bay  .... 












Til  1896  the  population  of  the  whole  of  Cape  Colony  was 
estimated  at  1,725,739  (376,812  Europeans),  and  the  area  at 
225.180  square  miles. 

Transkei,  Temhidand  and  East  Griqualand  are  the  Kaffir  districts, 
wliicli  between  1876  and  1880  were  made  part  of  Cape  Colony.  In  1886 
and  1887  parts  of  Pondoland  (Xesibeland  and  Rode  Valle}^)  were 
added.  West  Griqualand  was  annexed  by  Cape  Colony  in  1871 
in  consequence  of  the  discovery  of  diamonds:  in  1873  it  was  again 
separated,  being  annexed  for  a  second  time  as  a  province  in  1880 
after  the  repeated  claims  of  the  Orange  Free  State  had  been  satisfied 
by  England  paying  I  90,000.  BritisU  Beclmanaland  (60,770  square 
miles  and  60,376  inhabitants,  1891),  since  the  September  30th,  1885, 
a  crown  colony.  North  of  West  Griqualand,  has  been  connected  with 
Cape  Colony  since  the  16th  November,  1895,  including  the  Western 
district  between  the  Molopo,  Nosob  and  the  Anglo-German  frontier, 
which  till  1891  belon-^ed  to  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate. 

Foudoland  forms  a  sort  of  Personal  Union  with  Cape  Colony 
and  has  200,000  inhabitants.  Became  a  British  Protectorate  in  1878 
(the  coast  being  acquired  5tli  January  1885)  and  was  annexed  on 
the  25th  September,  1894,  by  Cape  Colony.  The  Governor  of  Cape 
Colony  has  been  Governor  of  Pondoland  since  the  3rd  April  1894. 


The  course  of  the  Orange  river  serves  roughly  as  the  Northern 
frontier:  Together  with  the  Molopo  River  and  the  frontier  of  the 
Orange  Free  State. 

Since  1878,  the  Governor  of  Cape  Colony  superintends,  as  Her 
Majesty's  High  Commissioner  for  South  Africa,  Basutoland,  Becliuana- 
lamJ  Protectorate^  the  territoiy  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company, 
and  also  since  February  1896  the  territory  of  Montisioa,  Chief  of 
Barolong,  North  of  British  Bechuanaland,  who  died  in  the  autumn 
of  1896,  and  of  Ikanning,  Chief  of  Bamaliti  (North  of  Mafeking) 
which  was  separated  from  the  British  South  African  Company's 
territory  in  1895.  For  both  these  territories  an  assistant  commis- 
sioner is  appointed. 

The  collective   territories    form  the  direct   possession  of  Great  Possession. 

1486,    Bartholomew  Diaz   discovered  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,      History. 
and  the  Portuguese  vainly  endeavoured  to  found  a  colony  there. 

1601,  The  Dutch  East  India  Co  establishes  a  peasant  colony 
at  the  Cape,  and  builds  in  1651  a  fortress,  where  Cape  Town  is  at 
present  situated. 

1620,  The  English  East  India  Co  attemi)ts  to  colonise  the  Cape. 

1652,  Van  Riebeek  succeeds  in  establishing  a  Dutch  colony 
of  the  Netherlands  East  India  Co  at  the  Cape. 

1688 — 1689,  Ilugeuot  immigration  to  Cape  Colony. 

1776,  August,  ^Yhilst  attemcing  to  regain  Cape  Colony,  the 
Dutch  fleet  was  captured  by  Elphinstone  in  the  Saldanha  Bay. 

1781,  First  war  with  the  Ama  Kossa  Kaffirs. 

1795,  Revohition  of  the  Boers  against  the  Dutch  East  In- 
dia Co. 

1795,  September  16th,  The  English  establish  themselves  in  Cape 
Colony  without  striking  a  blow,  and  conquer  the  land  as  far  as  the 
Great  Fish  River. 


1797,  Rising  of  tlio  l^oers  ami  begiuiiing  of  the  frictions  ^vith 
tlio  Kniiiisli. 

1803.  Capo  Coloiiv.  wWwh  had  heconu'  l^'rcncli  territory,  restored 
to  llolhiiul. 

181H).  The  Englisli  reconiiuer  Cape  Cok)ny,  wliich  is  ceded  to 
them  (Ml  i)aymeut  of  8  millions  /  sterling. 

1820,  Extensive  immigration  of  Scotchmen  to  the  Cape;  Port 
Elisabeth  founded. 

1823,  Eoimding  of  a  British  settlement  in  Natal. 

1837,  Dutch  Boers  cross  the  great  mountains,  and  settle  in 
Natal.  Emigration  of  the  Boers  northwards  and  defeat  of  Umsa- 
lekaze  (Mosilekatze)  near  Mosilekatze's  Neck. 

1839,  The  Boers  found  the  Natal  Free  States,  which  the 
Englisli  Government  tries  to  incorporate  witli  the  Cape  Colony. 

IS-AO,  The  Boer  and  Kaffir  wars  break  out.  Natal  declared  a 
British  possession,  whereupon  the  Boers  wander  northwards  in  two 
great  bodies. 

1848,  The  English  occupy  the  Boer  States  North  of  the  Orange 
Free  State ;  the  Boers  cross  the  Vaal  and  found  Transvaal, 

1858,  More  than  2000  hardy  peasants  from  Germany  are 
allotted  farms  in  British  Kaffraria,  including  many  belonging  to  the 
German  legion  raised  by  England  for  service  in  tlie  Crimea. 

1865,  Incorporation  of  British  Kaffraria. 

1868,  Incorporation  of  Basutoland,  and  1871,  West  Griqualand. 

1877,  Extension  of  England's  royal  prerogative  over  free 
Kaffirland  and  the  Transvaal. 

1878—1879,  Zulu  War. 

1879,  January  22nd,  Battle  of  Isandula,  in  which  the  English 
were  defeated  by  the  Zulus  and  858  out  of  1329  Englisli  soldiers 
killed  or  wounded.  Followed  by  the  decisive  battle  of  Ulundi  under 
Lord  Chelmsford  followed,  when  the  Zulu  power  w^as  completely 
shattered.  June  1st,  death  of  Prince  Napoleon.  August  18th, 
Cetewayo  made  prisoner. 


1886,  December  10th,  Pondoland  incorporated. 

1887,  Zululaud  divided (14th  May  annexation)  and  the  foundation 
of  a  new  South  African  State,  ''Vryheid",  which  a  few  months  later 
was  connected  with  tlie  Transvaal. 

Cape  Colony  proper  is  divided  into  74  districts,  and  its  depen-  Divisions, 
dencies  into  29  divisions.  A  Governor  is  at  the  head  ot  the  Colony  y^^-^ 
with  an  Executive  Council.  The  Legislative  Council  consists  of  22 
members,  who  are  elected  every  seven  years.  The  Colony  is  managed 
by  a  Governor  and  five  Ministers  of  State.  Each  district  has  its 
own  resident  magistrate,  who  is  also  Civil  Commissioner,  and  a  council 
of  six  members.  The  Seat  of  Government  is  Capetown  (83,718  inha- 
bitants in  1891)  or,  without  the  suburbs  only  51,251. 


The  Bechuanaland  Protectorate  (since  27th  February  [30th  Sep- 
tember] 1885)  embraces  the  South  African  territories  between  the 
Molopo  River,  about  26"  South  Latitude,  in  the  South;  and  the  Zambesi, 
Tshobe,  and  Okavango  in  the  North;  German  South  West- Africa  in 
the  West;  and  the  South  African  Republic  and  Matabeleland  in  tlie 
East,  Tlie  area  is  386,200  scjuare  miles  and  tlic  population  about 
100,000.  Tlie  greater  part  of  the  territory  is  made  up  of  a  water- 
less desert  overgrown  by  thicket,  with  here  and  there  a  sprinkling 
of  forest.  It  is  only  properly  fertile  in  the  East.  According 
to  the  terms  of  a  Besolution  of  Council,  the  4th  July,  1890, 
the  territory  was  ])la('od  under  tlie  jurisdiction  of  the  Governor  of 
British  Bechuanaland,  but  on  the  18th  Novemher,  1895,  when  it  was 
annexed  l)y  the  Ca])e  as  the  Crown  Colony,  British  Bechuanaland, 
new  agreements  were  made.  According  to  these,  the  (Jiiartered 
Company    of    South    Africa    was    to    take    over    the    management; 


but  the  loailiiiii'  chiefs  of  tlio  country  protested,  bciiii;-  dissatislied 
uitli  the  proji'ct  of  huihliiii;-  ;i  railway  through  the  country  to^var(ls 
the  North.  Tlie  result  of  their  protests  was  that  the  districts  of 
the  chiefs.  Khauia  of  Baiuangwato  (chief  town,  Palachwe,  25,000 
inhabitants),  Sebele  of  l^akwena,  Batoen  of  the  Bangwaketse,  Mantsioa, 
cliief  of  the  Barolong  tribe  of  the  Boratsile,  and  Ikanning,  chief  of 
the  Bainaliti.  were,  according  to  the  State  Papers,  Nos.  40  and  43, 
of  the  English  l>luehook  C.  7962,  London  1896,  subjected  to  a  strict 
demarcation,  and  Khania,  Sebele,  and  Bathoen  were  informed  that 
they  might  rule  their  land  as  usual,  "under  the  protection  of  the 
Queen."  The  Queen  is  represented  by  various  officials.  The  country 
forming  the  protectorate  outside  the  provinces  of  the  chiefs  mentioned 
is  governed  by  the  South  Africa  Company,  with  the  exception  of 
Mantsioa's  and  Ikanning's  territories,  which  were  pLaced  under  the 
High  Commissioner  of  Cape  Colony  on  the  3rd  February,  1896, 
after  being  subordinated  to  the  South  Africa  Company  on  the  18tli 
October,  1895.     Seat  of  the  authorities,  ShosJ/onf/. 

Only  the  possessions  and  claims  of  the  Bakhatla  chief,  Lenchwe, 
remain  still  upsettled.  He  will  have  to  come  to  a  decision  personally. 
Owing  to  the  construction  of  railways,  and  the  mining  in  the  neigh- 
bouring districts,  as  well  as  to  the  rai)id  political  changes  characte- 
rising this  part  of  Africa,  things  are  by  no  means  definitely  settled. 
On  the  6th  August  and  25th  October,  1882,  the  Boers  established 
the  Republics  of  Stellalaud  (15,490  sq.  km,  15,500  inhabitants), 
And  Goosen  (10,400  sq.  km  and  17,000  inhabitants) ;  but  they  are 
no  longer  existing.  In  1884,  Stellaland  was  i)laced  under  British 


Territory    of   the   Chartered   Company 
of  British  South  Africa. 

(Rhodesia^  British  Zambesia.) 

The  names,  Rliodesla,  British  Zambesia,  ami  British  Central  otiioiai  title. 
Africa,  do  not  exactly  constitute  the  official  titles  of  the  lands  of 
the  Chartered  Company  of  British  South  Africa,  but  are  often  used 
to  denote  the  collective  territories  situated  North  and  West  of 
the  South  African  Republic  and  the  22°  South  Latitude  on  the 
one  side,  and  German  East  Africa,  Congo  State,  Angola,  Ger- 
man South  West  Africa,  and  Bechuanaland  on  the  other.  Zamhesia 
is  in  a  sense  an  official  title,  the  name  Rhodesia  on  the  other 
hand    is  quite  unofficial. 

The  course  of  the  Zambesi  divides  the  Dominions  of  the  Com-  Frontiers, 
pany  into  two  parts:  Northern  Zamhesia  on  the  left  bank,  and 
Southern  Zamhesia  on  the  right  bank.  According  to  the  terms  of 
the  Anglo  -  German  Ar/reemetit  of  the  1st  July,  1890,  the  West 
frontier  of  Southern  Zambesia,  with  which  the  greater  part  of  the 
present  Bechuanaland  Protectorate  is  still  united  for  administrative 
purposes,  commences  at  the  mouth  of  the  Orange  River,  and  follows 
its  course  as  far  as  the  20°  Longitude  East  of  Greenwich,  which, 
in  turn,  it  follows  Northwards  until  it  cuts  the  22"  parallel,  tlien(^ 
running  to  the  point  where  it  touches  the  21"  Longitude  East  of 
Greenwich.  Its  further  course  is  Northward  to  the  18°  parallel, 
which  it  pursues  as  far  as  the  Tshobe  River  and  Zambesia.  (See 
p.  57)  The  East  frontier  was  determined  by  the  Anglo-rortiigiiese 
Treaty  11th  June,  1891,  as  follows:  A  straight  line  beginning 
opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Aroangva  or  Loangvariver,  which  flows  into 
the  Zambesi  near  Zumbo,  and  proceeds  directly  South  to  the  10"  parallel, 

Count  Kinsky:    "The  Diplomatist'H  HaiicUiook  for  Africa".  •^ 


follows  this  till  its  connection  with  the  31"  meridian  East  of  Green- 
wich, then  passing  directly  South  to  the  point  where  the  Mazoe  lliver 
touches  the  33"  Longitude  East    of   Greenwich.     The  frontier  then 
follows  this  meridian  southwards  to  the  18"  30'  South  Latitude,  cuts 
the  iManica  Tlain  (1884  occupied  by  Portugal),  along  the  watershed, 
winds    towards    the    South -West    to    the    contlux    of   the  Sabi    and 
Lunti.  whence    it   runs    to  the   North-Easterly   point  of   the  South- 
African  Republic.     Tlie   frontier   at   the   watershed    on  the   Manica 
Plain  is  evidently  drawn  in  such  a  manner  that  no  more  any  terri- 
tory West   of  32"  30'  East  Longitude  of  Greenwich  shall  belong  to 
Portugal.  Again,  Great  Britain  has  no  more  any  claim  to  the  land  beyond 
33"  East  Longitude  of  Greenwich.  TheTati  gold  district  between  the  Shashi 
and  Kamaquaban  Rivers  is   excluded  from    the  Company's  territory, 
and  likewise  the  tract  of  land  between  the  Shashi  and  Maklutji  Rivers 
and  Khama's  district  North  of  the  22"  parallel. 

Northern  Zambesi  is  included  politically  in  British  Central 
Africa  (which  see),  being  only  administratively  connected  with 
the  lands  of  the  British  South  Africa  Company.  For  the  Western  and 
Northern  frontiers  see  page  49,  "Congo  State"  and  "Portuguese 
Lower  Guinea". 

^"■"  Area  of  operations  of  the  Company,  750,000  square  miles. 

Population.  Population  uncertain,  but  may  be  safely  computed  at  2,500,000. 

Divisions.  <^i,ice  1888  MashomUand    and  Mataheleland    have   formed  the 

heart  of  the  Company's  possession. 

Possession.  Southern  Zambesia   is   the   direct   possession   of  the  Company. 

Since  February  1891,  the  Company  has  also  governed  the  North 
Zambesia  territory,  (except  Nyassaland) ;  the  Royal  Commissioner  of 
which  works  together  with  the  Company,  whose  officials  are  also 
placed  under  him.  English  Bluebook  1895,  C  7637.  This  was  the 
status  quo  till  the  1st  of  January  1896. 


1888,  February  lltli  (5tli  Juue).  Treaty  of  peace  with  the 
Matabele  Prince,  Lobengula.  —  25th  July.  Demarcation  of  the 
British  Sphere  of  Interest. 

By  the  Royal  Charter  of  the  29th  OctoJjer,  1S89,  the   British      History 
Sphere  of  Interest  South  of  Zambesi  and  Tshobe   was   handed  over 
for  management  to  the  Company. 

1890,  August  20th.     Frontier  treaty  with  Portugal. 

1891,  May  9th.  The  Sphere  of  Power  of  the  High  Commissioner 
of  Cape  Colony  was  extended  to  this  territory.  (Blue  Book  1894 
C  7383).  —  28tli  May.  New  Frontier  treaty  with  Portugal. 

1894,    Matabele  War;  capture  of  Bulawayo. 

1896,  Dr.  Jameson's  raid  into  the  Transvaal  and  renewed 
rising  of  the  Matabele, 

1897,  January  30th.     Arbitration  re  the  Manica  Plain. 

The   territory    is    divided   into    13    Districts,    excepting   North  Goveniment 
)esi,  which  is  undivided.  '"''** 

Government  Offices,  Salishury  and  Bulawayo,  2000  inhabitants. 

British  Ceutral  Africa. 

Under  the  title  of  British  Central  Africa  (usually  abbreviated  official  title, 
into  B.  C.  A.)  is  comprised  since  22nd  February  1893  the  territory 
of  the  English  Sphere  of  Interest  North  of  the  Zambesi  River. 

The   frontier   line    runs    from    the    East   Shore    of  the    Nyassa    Kiontieis. 
Lake,   viz.,  from  the  parallel  at  wliicli  the  Rovuma  River  joins  the 
M'Sinje,  thence  Southwards  to  13"  30'  South  Latitude  and  the  East 
shore  of  Cliiuta  Lake,  which  it  follows.  Here  the  line  runs  in  a  straight 
line  to  the  East  shore  of  the  Kilwa  Lake,  along  which  it  continues 


its  coiirsi"   until    it   roarlies  the    extreme  South-Easterly  i)oiiit..     Tlie 
froutier  next   itioeeeds  to  the  extreme  Easterly   aftluent  of  tlie  Uuo 
Tiiver,     folloNviiiii-    tlie  course   of  the    foriuer   and    the    Kuo    till    they 
discharge  themselves  into  the  Shire.  From  this  point,  the  frontier  turns 
in  a  North  Westerly  direction  towards  Chiwanga,  and  runs  along  the 
watershed  hetween  the  Zamhesi  and  the  Nyassa  Lake,  till  it  touches 
tlu>    14"  South  Latitude.     The    froutier    from    this    s])ot    is    directed 
towards  that  point  where  the   15"  Latitude  meets  with  the  Aroanga 
or  Loangva,  and  follows   the    river-bed  of   the    latter  as  far  as  tlie 
ZixmhQ^i  (ANi/lo-Fortugiiese  Agreement,  Uth  June,  1891).  The  South 
froutier  is  formed    by    the  Zambesi  River.     The  Western  boundary 
line    begins  on  the  Zambesi  at  the  Katima  Falls,   and   stretches  in 
a  northerly  direction   along   the    river   to    the  Kabompo,   whence  it 
passes  to  the  frontiers  of  the  Congo  States.  ( Anglo- Portuguese  Treaty, 
31st  May,  1893;  valid  till  July  1898.)  No  decision  was  then  reached 
with  regard  to  the  possessory  rights  of  Barotseland.  (See  Portuguese 
Lower  Guinea).  In  accordance  with  the  Anglo-Fortuguese  Convention, 
20t1i  August,   1896,     Barotseland    was  definitely  added  to  Portugal. 
German   East    Africa    forms    the    North    fi-ontier    from    the    South 
point    of    the   Tanganyika   to  Narouga   on    the  Nyassa    Lake.     The 
remainder  of  the  frontier  line  runs  across   the  Nyassa  Lake  as  far 
as  the  parallel  of  the  Rovuraa-M'Sinje  junction. 

Area.  Including  the  British  Central  Africa  Protectorate,  the  territory 

measures  500,000  square  miles. 

Population.  The  uumber    of   inhabitants    is    uncertain,    but    is  most    likely 

4  millions.     Number   of  Europeans   B50    (1895),    of   which  32  are 

Division;..  The   former    dominion    of  Kazemhe,   North   Zambesi.     For    the 

territory  on  the  West  Shore  of  the  Nyassa  Lake  see  page  69. 

The  whole  territory  is  a  Sphere  of  Interest.  For  the  Protectorate 
see  page  69. 


Great  Britain  has  occupied   the   territory  since    the    beginning  i>„sst's.sioii. 
of  1891. 

1858 — 1873,  Livingstone's  journeys  into  the  Interior,  his  first     Kistory. 
courte    being  across    the   Continent  from  East  to  West.     His  death 
occurred  at  Dsitiambo's  village  in  the  Bangweolo  Lake  district. 

The    following   districts   are  administered  by  the  British  South      Varia, 
Africa    Company  (which  see):   Tshambesi,    Tanganyika,    Meru    and 
Luapula.     Seat  of  the  authorities,  1895,  Fort  Bosehery. 

British  Central  Africa  Protectorate. 

The  land  on  the  South  and  West  shore  of  the  Nyassa  Lake 
has  borne  this  name  since  the  decree  of  the  14th  May,  1891.  It  was  then 
separated  from  British  Central  Africa,  and  placed  under  a  Boyal 
Commissioner  and  Consul- General,  who  also  superintends  Northern 
Zambesi,  as  explained  on  page  66.  The  West  frontier  runs  from 
North  to  South  scarcely  100  km.  distant  from  the  West  Shore  of 
the  Nyassa.  The  area  and  population  have  never  been  properly 
estimated.  1896,  the  returns  for  the  population  were  844,995, 
including  259  English.  The  whole  country  is  divided  into  twelve 
districts,  in  each  of  which  are  one  or  two  administrative  officers.  The 
chief  town  and  residence  of  the  Commissioner  is  Blantyre  with 
6000  inhabitants,  including  100  Europeans.  Seat  of  the  Administration, 
Zomha  on  the  Shire.  The  garrison  is  formed  by  200  Sikhs  of  the 
Indian  Army.  For  the  purpose  of  communication  witli  the  sea, 
Portugal  has  ceded  to  the  British  Government  in  Tshinde,  on  the 
Indian  Ocean,  "a  small  piece  of  land"  as  a  so-called  "British 
concession",  at  the  only  navigable  mouth  of  the  Zambesi. 



This  territory  is  situated  on  the  rigiit  bunk  of  the  Upper  ()ra,nge 
River.  luul  surrounded  by  the  Orange  Free  State,  Natal,  and  Cape 
CoU^iy.  It  has  20,040  sq.  km.  or  10,293  square  miles,  with  250,000 
inluibitauts  (1895)  including  600  Europeans.  It  was  annexed  in 
August  1871,  and  on  the  18tli  March  1884  placed  directly  under 
tiie  Crown.  Governed  by  a  Resident  Commissioner  working  under 
the  High  Commissioner  for  South  Africa. 

Chief  Town.  Maseru,  862  inhabitants  (inclusive  of  99  Europeans). 


UlfKial  title. 




Colony  of  Natal. 

The  land  borders  in  the  North  on  the  Orange  Free  State  and 
the  South  African  Republic  together  with  Zululand  (frontier  river, 
Tugela),  in  the  East  on  the  Indian  Ocean  (200  miles),  in  the  South  on 
Cape  Colony  (East  Griqualand),  Pondoland,  and  Basutoland. 

Estimated  at  42,920  sq.  km.  (20,461  square  miles). 

ropiiiation.  In    1891,    543,913,   made  up   of  46,788   Europeans,   41,142 

natives  of  British  India    and  455,983  Kaffirs.    In  1895,    544,000. 

Formerly  an  integral  part  of  Cape  Colony.  Natal  was  converted 
into  an  independent  Crown  Colony  on  the  15th  July  1856,  and  in  1866 
increased  by  the  addition  of  Alfred  County  (the  most  Southerly 
Coast  district).  The  charter  of  the  Constitution  w\as  altered  in  1875, 
1879,  and  1893. 


The    coast  was   discovered  by  Vasco   da  Gama   ou  Cliristmas       History. 
Day,   1497,  hence  the  name. 

1719,  Founding  of  a  Dutch  colony,  soon  afterwards  abandoned. 

1834,  Settlement  of  English  emigrants. 

1835,  The  republic  "  Victoria"  was  founded  by  Captain  Gardiner 
but  dissolved  in  1838. 

1837,  Gert  Maritsz  and  Andreas  Pretorius  founded  in  Natal 
the  Batavisch  Afrikaansche  Maatschappij  and  Pietermaritzburg. 

1840,  Expulsion  of  the  Boers  by  the  English.  The  former 
wandered  into  the  territory  of  the  Vaal  and  Orange. 

1893,  July  20th,  Natal  becomes  an  independent  colony  with 
a  responsible  government. 

The  governor  rules   in  the  Queen's  name,  assisted  by  a  legis-  (Government. 


lative    council     and    a    legislative     assembly     together    with     five 
Ministers  appointed  by  him. 

Capital  and  residence  of  the  Governor,  Pietermaritzhurg. 
17,500  inhabitants  (1891). 

Ziilulancl  and  Tonofoland. 

The  British  possession  Zulnland  (annexed  14th  May  1887)  lies  to 
the  North-East  of  Natal,  and  borders  on  the  North  and  West  on  the 
South  African  Republic  and  Tongoland  (Tongola  River,  Maputa  and 
Usutu  Rivers,  Swasiland),  on  the  East  on  the  Indian  Ocean  {Convention  of 
England  tvith  the  South  African  Republic,  ^Oth  June  1888).  It  embraces 
the  former  Zulu  Reserve,  the  greater  part  of  the  dominion  of  Cetewayo 
who  died  9th  February  1884  and  that  of  Usibebii,  and  Santa  Lucia  Bay 
(12,500  square  miles,  22,320  sq.  km.  with  165,121  (1895)  inhabi- 
tants, including  about  1246  whites).  The  territory  is  administered  by 


the  Govonior  of  Natal.  Tlio  Commissioner  has  his  residence  at 
.Kshour,  (100  ^Yhites).  1888  and  1890,  some  territories  on  tlie  other 
side  of  the  former  Nortli  frontier  towards  the  Mkusi  lliver  were  joined 
to  /uhiland.  2ord  April.  1895,  hy  a  proclamation  of  the  Governor 
coiuHMiiiiiii  the  intended  railway  from  the  sea  to  the  Sonth  African 
Uepultlic.  the  territories  of  tlie  chiefs  of  Umhegesa,  Mdhlaleni  Sam- 
bane  and  others  were  joined  to  Zululand,  the  union  being  confirmed 
by  a  Pioyal  (^rder  of  the  8th  June,  1895.  Aufflo- Portuguese  Treaty 
jiiSfli  Mai/.  IS.'n.  English  IJluebooks  C  7780  and  C  7878,  London 
1895.    See  also  Petermann's  geograph.  Mittheilimgen,    1896    f.   90. 

Tomjoland,  Amatongo,  situated  North  of  Zululand ;  friendly 
treaty  with  England  since  6th  July,  1887;  5000  sq.  km.  with  31,000 
inhabitants.  On  SOtli  May,  1895,  made  a  British  Protectorate,  and 
l)laced  under  the  government  of  Natal.  (English  Blue  Book  C  7395, 
London  1885.)  The  North  frontier  was  regulated  by  an  agreement 
with  Portugal  28tli  May,  1891.  Further  agreements  are  dated 
29th  November  (3rd  December)  1887;  1888  (with  Zambila)  and 
August  1890. 

The  British  annexations  in  Zululand  and  Tongoland  Protectorate 
render  it  impossible  for  the  South  African  Republic  to  build  a 
railroad  to  the  South  without  passing  through  British  territory.  The 
Boer  Free  State  is  therefore  entirely  cut  off  from  the  sea. 

Orange  Republic. 

Official  title.  Qyanje   Vrij.^faat  (Orange  Free  State). 

Frontiers.  The  South  Frontier  is  formed  by  Cape  Colony  near  the  course 

of  the  Orange  River ;  the  East  frontier  by  Basutoland  and  Natal, 
the  North  frontier  by  the  South  African  Republic  (Vaal  River),  and 
the  West  frontier  by  West  Griqualand. 


131,070  sq.  km.    (48,326  square  miles).  Area. 

1890  —  207,503  (129,787  natives);  1895  —  220,000.  Population. 

Independent   State.  Possession. 

In  1836  tlie  territoiy  was  still  a  wilderness  inhabited  by  History. 
Bediuans  and  Bushmen.  When  in  1834  the  British  proclaimed  the 
abolition  of  the  slave  trade  in  Cape  Colony,  the  Boers  wandered 
with  their  slaves  into  the  territory  of  the  present  Republic,  and  founded 
there  a  free  state,  which,  being  taken  by  the  English  in  1848,  and 
on  the  23th  February  1854  declared  independent,  received  on  the 
10th  April  of  the  same  year  a  constitution,  which  was  revised  on 
the  9tli  February  1866  and  8th  May  1879.  On  the  abolition  of  sla- 
very by  the  Boers,  the  latter  received  from  England  in  1854  all 
the  possessions  belonging  to  them  in  the  territory  of  the  free  state. 
Since  then  the  country  has  been  quietly  developing. 

1897,  May  25th.  Commercial  treaty  with  Germany.  —  June  17th, 
Union  with  the  South  African  Republic. 

The    legislature    for    the  19  districts    consists    of  a  Volksraad  Oovemment. 


with  58  members  and  an  executive  with  a  president,  who  is  elected 
every  five  years.  Capital:  Bloemfontem,  3,457  inhabitants,  of  which, 
in  1890,  2077  were  Africanders  or  Europeans. 

South  African  Republic  (Formerly 

Zii'iilafiil-aansclic  Beimhlkh,  formerly  Tranmwl-Vnjstaat.  Oiiicial title. 

In  the  West  tlie  territory  borders  on  Bechuanaland  and  ]hntish     Frontiers. 
Central  Africa,  the  boundary  line  being  formed  by  the  Limi)opo  or 

Count  Kinsky:  "The  Diplomatisfs  Uandbook  for  Alrica".  l*^ 



CrocodWv  \V\\ or  {('on rn/tioH   irifh  England  37th  Fvhrminj  ISSI).    In 
the  North   it  b.uilors    (»ii    tlie  territory   of   the  Ih'itish  South  Africa 
Conii)any :  in  tlic  East  on  rortuguese  East-Africa,  Ziihi,  and  Tongo- 
land:  ami  in  the  South  on  Natal  and  the  Orange  Free  State. 
Aiva.  Total  Area,  308,560  sq.  km.,  119,139  square  miles. 

,..,,,„,„ion.  April  1895,  790,000. 

Besides  the  Transvaal  proper,  the  territory  of  the  Republic 
includes  also,  since  1887,  the  New  BepiMie,  Zululand,  which  was 
founded  by  the  Boers  on  the  IGtli  August,  1884,  under  the  name 
"  Vryheid",  and  (since  10th  December  1894),  the  Protectorate  state 
of  Sirasiland,  declared  independent  in  1884  (18,140  sq.  km.,  41,000 
inhabitants,  1000  Europeans),  the  KepubHc  being  unable  to  incor- 
porate it. 

Independent  State,  whose  foreign  affairs  are  so  far  limited  by 
raragraph  IV  of  the  treaty  ivlth  England  27th  February  1884,  that 
Enr/land  has  a  right  of  veto  in  all  state  treaties  within  six  months. 

The  state  was  formed  l)y  those  Boers  who  emigrated  in  1835 
Treaties.      ^^.^^^^  q^^^^  Colony  to  Natal,  but  who  left  the  latter  territory  when 
it  was  annexed  by  England  and  declared  a  crown  colony. 

1852,  February  17th,  England's  recognition  of  the  independence 
of  the  State. 

1853.  Founding  of  Pretoria.  Proclamation  of  the  Constitution 
in  33  Articles  (from  23rd  May,  1819). 

1858,  Februqiry  13th,  passing  of  the  Grondwet  or  Fundamental 

1869,  July  29th,  Frontier  regulation  treaty  with  Portugal. 

1875,  Ignatz  Maritsz  founded  the  Small  Free  State. 

1877,  April  12th,  England  annexes  the  Transvaal. 

1880,  Commencement  of  the  war  with  England. 

1880,  January  and  February.  ?>attles  by  Laing's  Neck  on  the 
Ingogo  and  near  Majuba. 




1881,  March  21st.  Volksraad  resolution,  26tli  October,  1881. 
Restitution  of  the  Transvaal  State  in  reference  to  home  affairs,  the 
management  and  control  of  foreign  affairs  being  made  subject  to 
the  suzerainty  of  the  Queen  of  England. 

1884,  Fehniary  27tli  (August  3rd  1881)  Convention  ivitli  Eng- 
land (ratified  by  the  Volksraad  August  8th  1884)  by  which  Enfj- 
lamVs  suzerainty  for  the  control  of  foreign  affairs  of  the  State  was 
restricted,  and  the  State  for  political  reasons  adopted  the  name  of  the 
"South  African  BeimUic" . 

1887,  September  14tli.  Incorporation  of  the  New  Republic. 

1888,  June  20th.  England's  recognition  of  the  alterations  in 
the  South  African  Republic. 

1889,  March  13th,  ]Mashona  and  :Matabeleland  fall  under  the 
British  Sphere  of  Interest. 

1890,  June  23rd,  Revision  of  the  constitution;  2nd  August,  front- 
ier treaty  with  England  and  incorporation  of  the  Small  Free  State; 
August  4th,  Incorporation  of  a  part  of  Swasiland  (Swasiland  Con- 

1894,  December  10th.  Swasiland  becomes  a  protectorate  state 
of  the  South  African  Republic.  Although  not  incorporated,  the  Boers 
have  had  the  right  of  legislating  and  administering  justice  since  the 
21st  February,   1895. 

1896,  December.  Dr.  Jameson's  invasion  and  march  to  Johannes- 

1897,  March,  (June  17th).  Union  with  the  Orange  Free  State. 

At  the  head  of  the  State  is  a  president,  elected  every  three  years 
and  supported  by  two  chambers  the  Eerste  Raad  and  the  Volksraad, 
each  composed  of  24  members. 

Capital:  Pretoria,  8000  inhabitants. 



offitial  title. 




Ti'f  .nf  it's. 

PortiioiK^se  East  Africa. 

Ksfailo  (V Africa  Oriciifal,  fonneily  Moramhfqm  and  Sofala. 

The  I-M^f  frontier  is  formed  by  the  Indian  Ocean  from  the 
Ivosi  Bay,  abont  27"  Sonth  Latitude,  to  Cape  Delgado  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Kovunia,  about  10"  30'  South  Latitude;  the  North  frontier, 
towards  German  East  Africa,  by  the  course  of  the  Rovuma  (German- 
rortti(]uese-English  agreement,  29tli  Octoher  and  SOtli  Beceniher,  1886 
and  Id  Jnly  1890  \  re  the  territory  at  the  mouth  of  the  river 
[Kionga  bay]  Septemher  1894)  to  liy,"  South  Latitude,  whence 
it  runs  in  a  straiglit  line  to  the  East  shore  of  the  Nyassa  Lake. 
The  frontier  next  foHows  the  shore  of  the  lake  towards  the  South 
as  far  as  the  13"  30'  South  Latitude.  From  this  point  it  is  formed 
by  the  hitherto  inaccurately  defined  frontier  on  the  Manica  Plain 
(vide  Anglo-Portuguese  convention  oj  the  28th  Mag  and  11th  June, 
1891).  From  Limpopo  onwards  the  territory  is  bordered  by  the  S.  A. 
Kepublic.  In  the  South,  the  Estado  bordeis  on  British  Tongo- 
land  and  Zululand.  * 

The  area  amounts  to  768,740  sq.  km.,  (261,700  square  miles.) 

Population,  1,500,000;  other  authorities,  768,740  to  2'k  millions. 

The  territory  embraces  the  districts  of  Cape  Delgado,  Ibo, 
j\[o(;ambique,  Inhambane,  Quilimane,  Senna,  Tcte,  Sumbo,  Gasaland, 
Sofala,  Lauren(;o  Marquez,  Delagoa  Bay  (the  "key"  to  South  Africa) 
and  several  small  islands.  The  land  is  divided  into  two  parts,  by  the 
course  of  the  Zambesi  Mogamhique  North  of  the  Zambesi,  and  Lau- 
rengo  Marquez,  South  of  same,  with  capitals  bearing  the  same  name. 

Direct  possession,  which  nevertheless,  according  to  Royal  Decree 
of  the  September  30th,  1891,  is  leased  for  25  years  to  private  com- 
panies for  opening  up  and  general  management. 

Vasco  da  Gama  discovered  the  coast  in  1498,  and  it  was  soon 
afterwards  colonised  by  Tristan  da  Cunlia  and  became  the  scene  of 


many   immigrations.     The  territory    was    connected   administratively     Frontier. 

•11    -inrc-k  Regulation. 

with  Goa  in  the  East  Indies  till  1752. 

1869,  July  29tli,  Frontier  regulation  treaty  with  Transvaal. 

1870,  Abolition  of  slavery. 

1878,  Arbitation  by  the  French  Marshall,  Mac  Mahou,  whereby 
Portugal  obtained  definite  possession  of  Delagoa  Bay,  claimed  by 
England.  Disputes  arose  with  England  (African  Lakes  Co,  Building 
of  the  Stevenson  Road,  Cardosa,  Serpa  Pinto),  which  resulted  in 
England's  colonisation  work  on  the  Lake  Nyassa.  England  maintained 
the  right  of  preemption  of  Delagoa  Bay. 

1884,  Portuguese  occupation  of  Manica. 

1885,  October  14th,  Vrotection  treaty  with  the  Zulus  under 

1888,  April  27th,  Reclamation  of  Mashonaland. 

1890,  August  20th,  An  un-ratified  treaty  with  England  re- 
lative to  the  Zambesi  basins. 

1891,  May  28th,  Renewed  frontier  treaty  with  JEnglancl 
1891,  July  30th,  Formation  of   the   Inhambane   and    Mozam- 
bique Companies. 

1891,  September  30th,  Formation  of  the  Estado  d' Africa  Oriental.  Government. 

1895,  February.  Regulation  of  the  German  frontier. 

1896,  December  9th.  Definitive  regulation  of  the  German- 
Portuguese  frontier. 

1897,  April.  —  Bern  Arbitration  re  Delagoa  Bay  railway. 

A  Royal  Commissioner  General,  appointed  for  three  years,  rules  Varia. 
the  state  as  Governor  and  has  his  seat  in  Laurengo  Marques  (1700 
Europeans;  5000— 6000  black  inhabitants,  700  Portuguese,  [1897]). 
The  native  chiefs  in  the  various  districts  are  subject  to  him  as  Capitaes 
moroes.  An  important  railroad  runs  from  Laurenco  Marcpiez  (1895, 
57  miles  laid  by  the  Portuguese  and  290  miles  by  the  Netherland 
Company)  to  the  South  African  Republic  (Pretoria).  A  line  is  also 
being  built  from  Beira  to  Salisbury  in  Rhodesia. 


Madnoascar  and   nepeii(l(MU*ios. 

•  Mfirial  titlo.  Ma(ltl(/((scar. 

DiTisions.  l^esides  tlu>  large  island,  the  St.  Marie,  Nossi  Be,  and  Glorioso 

Islamh  are  regarded  us  dependencies  of  Madagascar,  the  former  on 
the  N.  K.  side,  and  the  latter  on  the  N.  W.  side  of  the  Island. 

Area.  Area,  591,5()li  sq.  km.  (228,500  square  miles)  with  the  surround- 

ing islets,   591,964  sq.    km.  (1650  km.   greatest   length,    520  km. 
greatest  breadth,  400  km.  average  width. 

Population.  Topulation :  3,500,000  (French  official  indication  1897  :  from  five 

to  six  Millions).  jNIalay  Hovas :  1  Million,  Sakalavas:  1  Million,  Bet- 
siloes:  600,000,  Betsimisarakas:  400,000,  Southern  races:  200,000. 

Poss^ession.  Siuce  August  1896,  direct  French  possession. 

Hii^tory.  Madagascar  was  mentioned  by  Marco  Polo  as  early  as  the  13th 

Century.  10th  August,  1506,  discovered  by  the  Portuguese  d' Almeida, 
who  called  it  Sao  Lourenco.  Under  Louis  XIV  declared  French 
possession ;  the  kingdom  of  the  Malegassies  however  remained  intact. 
Subsequently  the  last  dominion  collapsed. 

1814,  Reconquest  of  Foulepointe,  Tamatave  and  St.  Marie  by 
the  French. 

1822,  Expulsion  of  the  French  by  Ptadama  I,  who  was  supported 
by  England,  whereupon  Ranavalo  I  expelled  all  Europeans  from  the 

1845,  Franco-British  Expedition  against  Madagascar. 

1862,  In  conse(iuence  of  having  conceded  land  to  the  French- 
man Lambert,  Radama  11  was  killed.  His  wife  and  successor, 
Ilasoherina,  formed  an  alliance  with  England  and  the  U.  S.  A.  to 
her  ultimate  detriment. 


1868,  Angust  8th,  Renewed  frmty  icHli  France. 

1869,  Ranavalo  II  adopts  Christianity  through  EngHsh  influence; 
wars  and  rebelHons  follow. 

1885,  December  17tli.  At  the  end  of  the  French  war,  France 
obtained  the  right,  hij  a  treaty,  to  maintain  a  general  resident  on 
the  island  and  to  control  foreign  affairs.  (Occupation  of  Diego 
Suarez  Bay  by  France.) 

1890,  England  recognises  the  French  protectorate  of  the  island, 
but  the  natives  oppose  any  kind  of  protectorate  whatever. 

1895,  May,  French  war  with  Madagascar.  The  taking  of  the 
Capital  on  the  1st  October  led  to  the  occupation  of  the  island. 

1896,  July  11th  and  August  3rd,  Decree  of  the  French  Govern- 
ment concerning  the  reorganisation  of  the  island. 

1896,  August  6th,  Official  proclamation  of  the  annexation  of  the 
island  by  France  in  January,  which  is  recognised  by  the  U.  S.  A. 

The  Hovas  have  been  allowed  to  retain  the  Royal  dignity  (the  Government. 
Prime  Minister  is  also  the  Queen's  husband).  Ranavalo  III  has 
reigned  since  the  13th  July  1883.  Capital:  Antananarivo,  100,000 
inhabitants.  Seaport:  Tamatave,  10,000  Inhabitants.  Slavery  still 
exists  in  a  patriarchal  sense,  although  abolished  by  a  proclamation 
on  the  8th  March,  1889. 

The  surrounding  islands,  which  are  dependencies  of  Madagascar, 
are  St.  Marie,  since  1643  French,  with  165  sq.  km.  (64  square  miles) 
and  7667  Inhabitants,  and  Nossi  Be,  393  sq.  km.  or  113  square  miles 
and  7700  Inhabitants.  These  islands  were  formerly  direct  French 
possession,  as  also  was  Dicno  Snares  (4567  inhab.)  on  the  Nortli  Coast. 

The  uninhabited  islands  are  Juan  de  Nova,  Bassas  de  India 
and  Europa. 


^[niiritiiis  and    1  )(^pcndoiicies. 

Mifi.iai  till.'.  CoJonij  of  MiiHf/tiHx,  toniuM'ly  l^lc  ilc  France. 

Divisions.  Tlio    Easterly  jMascavenlias    Island,  Maurithis,    belongs    to    tlie 

Colony  of  M(i/ir/fif<!i.  together  witli  the  h](in(h  Jiodrif/iiCi  110  sq.  km., 
J>/(\(/o  (i((n-i(L  Amiraufc.'^,  Seychelles,  of  which  only  Mahe  and  Pras- 
lin  are  inhabited,  the  Tshagos  Islands,  Trois  freres  or  Eagle  Islands, 
the  Cosmoledo  Islands  (Oil  Islands)  Assumption,  St.  Brandon  or 
Can/ados  (16" 50'  and  16*^20'  Sonth  Latitude  and  50)" Ki'  to  59n4' 
Longitude  East  of  Greenwich),  and  lastly  the  Aldabra  Islands 
157  s(i.  km. 

Aivit.  ^Mauritius,  705  square  miles,  Seychelles  264  sq.  km.,  Amirantes 

13  sq.  km.     Total  area  of  the  dependencies,   172  square  miles. 

PopniMfion.  Mauritius  370,588  (1891)   (1895;  375,000)   inhabitants,    two 

thirds  of  whom  are  Indians  and  3400  Chinese;  the  Seychelles  16,400 
(1891);  Amirantes  100  (1891);  Rodriguez  2061  (1891);  Diego 
Garcia  700. 




Direct  possession  of  Great  Britain. 

The  Mascarenhas  Islands  were  discovered  in  1505  and  1507  by 
the  Portuguese  Pietro  Mascarenhas  Mauritius  (discovered  1507) 
was  occupied  in  1591  by  the  Dutch  under  Van  Neck,  who  named 
the  island  after  his  sovereign.  1712  evacuated  by  the  Dutch, 
1721  occupied  by  France,  who  ceded  Mauritius  and  the  Seychelles 
in"  1814  to  PiUgland. 

Capital  of  Mauritius  and  seat  of  the  Governor,  Fort  Louis, 
58,244  inhabitants  (1894).    Chief  town  of  the  Seychelles  Make. 


Reunion  and  Dependencies. 

Reunion  (Isle  de  Bourbon).  Official  title 

The  islands  Mayotta  (since  26tli  January  1896),  St.  Paul,  and  New     DiAisions. 
Amsterdam,  which  Great  Britain  ceded  to  France,  in  1892,  together 
with  the  uninliabited  Kerguelen  islands,  annexed  by  France  in  1893, 
are  dependencies    of  the  westerly  Mascarenhas  Island.     St.  Paul  is 
the  oldest  French  settlement  in  the  Indian  Ocean. 

The  area  of  Reunion  is  2512  sq.  km.  or  965  square  miles,  of        Area. 
Mayotta  366  sq.  km.  or  140  sq.  m. 

167,847  (1893)  inhabirants,  one-fifth  whites,  23,161  British  In-    Population, 
dians,  412  Chinese  (1892).  Mayotta  contains  8706  inhabitants  (1893). 

Direct   possession   of  P'rance.  Possession. 

1505,  discovered  by  Pietro  Mascarenhas;   1631,  the  island  was      History, 
colonised  by  the  French  merchant  Gobert  from  Dieppe.    It  was  used 
for  a  long  time  as  a  convict  station.   1764,  conquered  bytheEnghsh. 
1784  returned  to  France,    and    the  island  has  remained  since' then 
a  French  possession.     Mayotta  has  belonged  since  1843  to  France. 

Capital:  St.  Denis;  sends  one  Senator  and  two  Deputies  to  the       \'aiia. 
French  Chamber  of  Deputies. 

The  Comoro  Islands. 

Les   Co  mo  res.  official  title. 

This  archipelago,  situated  North  West  of  Madagascar,  consists     Divisions, 
of  the  islands  Great  Comoro,  Mohilla,  and  Johanna.  The  small  uninha- 
bited islands  situated  North  of  Madagascar  also  belong  to  this  group, 

Count   Kinsky:    "The  Diplomatist's  Handbook  for  Africa".  11 


viz.,  xU^fDH/ttion,  Astorc,  Cosmolrdo,  St.  Ficrre,  Providence,  Cerf 
and  l'\ir<iH/i(U\  toi^vtlicr  with  tlic  HV.vnv/  Cl'Jf's;  Tromelin,  Galeya, 
II ml   (idrdi/os  are  unoccupied. 

Airii.  1972  S(|.  km.  (620  sq.  u\.)  area  of  the  Comoro  Islands. 

i'upniati..n.  Conioros  61.700  (according'  to  I'ritisli  autliorities  53,000). 

i»oss«'ssinii.  Protectorate  of  tlie  French  RepubHc ;  Mayotta  French  possession 

since   1S45. 

^''»''"  The  French  Protectorate    came   into  force  on  the  basis  of  the 

treaty  dated  Johanna,  ^4th  April,  1886. 


nffuiai  title.  Zanzibar  (Sansihar). 

Frontiers.  The  territory  of  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar  consists  of  the  islands  Zr/w- 

ziharsindPemha.  None  of  the  opposite  mainland  belongs  to  the  Sultanate. 

•^""<'  Zanzibar,  1590  sq.  km.,  625  square  miles;  Pemba,  960  sq.  km. 

360  square  miles. 

Pupniatinii.  Zanzibar  150,000,  Pemba  50,000  of  which  more  than  100  are 

of  European  descent  (50  English,  50  Germans  and  7000  Indians). 

Possession.  British  protectorate  since   the  1st  July  (4th  November)  1890. 

Since  the  31st  August,  1896,  known  as  the  East  Africa  Protectorate. 

History.  jn  1499  Vasco  da  Gama's  fleet  touched  the  island,  which  fell 

into  the  hands  of  the  Portuguese  in  1503.  The  African  coast  from 
Mombassa  to  Cape  Corrientes,  together  with  the  islands,  came  under 
the  rule  of  Portugal  in  1529.    1698,  Imam  of  Maskat  conquered  the 


territory,  and  drove  the  Portuguese  South.  1823  and  following  years, 
British  appeared  in  Zanzibar  waters.  1856,  the  possessions  of  Imam 
Sejjid  Said  of  Maskat  were  divided  between  his  two  sons,  and 
Sejjid  Medshid  acquired  the  African  countries  on  the  mainland, 
which  had  in  the  meantime  been  extended  to  the  regions  of  Tan- 
ganyika and  Nyanza,  as  an  independent  state.  The  Governor  General 
of  India,  Lord  Canmng,  recognised  the  division  in  1861,  but  France 
not  untill  the  10th  March,  1862.  At  that  time  the  coast  of  the  African 
continent  from  Warsheik,  V  North  Latitude,  to  Tunghi  Bay,  10 "42' 
South  Latitude,  also  belonged  to  Zanzibar.  Germany's  recognition 
30th December,  1886.  October  29th  (IstNovember)  1886,  the  territory, 
which  had  in  the  meantime  extended  far  into  the  interior,  was 
divided  in  such  a  way  that  the  coast  land  from  Cape  Delgado  to 
Kipini  on  the  Ozi  River,  10  miles  broad  and  stretching  into  the 
interior,  was  added  to  the  Sultan's  dominion.  It  was  then  decided 
that  the  German  Empire  should  possess  a  Sphere  of  Interest  in 
connection  with  the  Zanzibar  territory  from  the  Rovuma  River  to  the 
Umba  River.  North  of  Kipini,  the  Sultan  retained  several  garrison 
towns,  viz.,  Lamu,  Kismayu,  Brava,  Merka,  Maqdishu  and  Warsheik. 

1885,  August  14th,  Recognition  of  the  German  Protectorate  over 
Usagara,  Nguru,  Useguha  and  Ukami. 

1888,  May,  the  German  East  Africa  Co.  obtains,  in  consideration 
of  the  payment  of  4  million  marks,  the  right  to  administrate  in 
Mrima,  (the  interior  from  Rovuma  to  the  Umba).  England  (Imperial 
British  East  Africa  Company),  as  early  as  the  24th  of  May,  1887, 
had  acquired  the  right  of  administration  of  the  land  from  the  Umbi 
to  Kipini  for  a  yearly  payment  to  the  Sultan. 

1889,  August  31st,  England  obtained  the  island  and  Ports 
Lamu,  Manda  and  Patta  to  the  North  of  Tana. 

1890,  November   4th,    liritish    Protectorate    of  Zanzibar   and 

cession  to  England  of  the  territory  from  Umba  to  Juba,  with  Witu  as 

British  Sphere  of  Interest,  Germany  receiving  Heligoland  in  exchange. 



1892,  August  2r)th  (.luly  Ifitli),  Italy  leases  from  the  Sultan 
Warsheik.  ^IiKulisliu,  Mevka  and   r»niva. 

1893,  July  81st,  Sultan  once  more  governs  tlie  territory  bet- 
ween Tana  and  Juba. 

1895,  June  loth.  Declaration  of  l^ritish  Protectorate  over  all 
the  country  from  the  coast  to  Uganda;  on  the  50th  June  the  British 
Imperial  Government  itself  takes  a  tirm  footing  there. 

1896,  August  25tli,  Sultan  Sejjid  Hamed  bin  Tliwain  bin  Sa'id 
dies.     Ilamud  bin  Muhammed  succeeds  him. 

1897,  April  6th,  Abolition  of  slavery,  which  was  already  prohi- 
bited in  1890. 

..veiiiiiu'iit.  The  present   government   of  Zanzibar    was  formed  in  October, 

^«'"^"*-  jytj^^  ^^..^j^  Sir  L.  Mathews  as  ''Prime  Minister''.  All  proclamations 
and  agreements,  etc.,  must  be  drawn  up  in  the  English  and  Arabian 
languages,  and  must  first  be  submitted  to  the  English  Consul  General 
for  his  consent.  Since  the  1st  February,  1891,  Zanzibar  a  free  port. 
Chief  town,  Zandhar,  30,000  inhabitants  (often  estimated  at  100,000). 

German  East  Africa. 

<»fficiai  title.  Protectorate  of  the  German  Empire  (Schutzgebiete  des  deutschen 

Reich es):   German  East  Africa,  Beutscli-Ostafrika. 
Frontiers.  In  the  East,   the  Indian  Ocean   (the  Matia  Island  has  also  be- 

longed to  the  Protectorate  since  the  1st  December  1891),  in  the  t^outh 
(Fortuguese,  German  and  English  conventions  of  the  29th  October 
[1st  November]  and  30th  December  1886,  1st  Jidy  1890,  and  Sep- 
tember 1894),  a  straight  line  from  Cape  Delgado  to  the  Rovuma, 
(the  Kionga  Bay  is  German),  then  along  the  course  of  this  river  to 
IIV2"  South  Latitude,  whence  it  passes  direct  to  the  East  shore  of 
the    Nyassa    Lake   as   far   as   Karonga,    the    track    of   the    former 


Stevenson  road  to  Tanganyika  (Anglo-German  Treaty  1st  July  1890), 
along  the  East  sliore  of  the  basin  of  this  lake  toUsige  on  the  North  shore 
of  the  Tanganyika,  and  from  here  in  a  sti-aight  line  as  far  as  Mfumbiro 
(Declaration  of  the  Congo  State's  Administrator  February  1885),  till 
it  reaches  the  1"  North  Latitude.  Omitting  the  Mfumbio,  the  North 
frontier  follows  the  1"  North  Latitude  (Convention  hetween  England 
and  Germany  1st  July  1890)  across  the  Victoria  Nyanza  as  far  as 
Kawirondo  Bay,  thence  continuing  its  course  in  a  straight  line  N.  E. 
towards  Kilima  Ndsharo,  which  belongs  to  Germany,  and  so  to  the 
North  bank  at  the  mouth  of  the  Umba.  (Treaties  hetween  England 
and  Germany,  1st  November,  1886  and  1st  July,  1893). 

975,000  sq.  km.  or  310,000  square  miles,  which  (according  to       Area. 
Dr.  Karl  Peters)  are  divided  into  220,000  sq.  km.  settlement  land, 
116,000  sq.  km.  uninhabited  territory,   and  66,000  sq.  km.  water. 

The  number  of  inhabitants  is  estimated  at  3,850,000  (English   Population. 
estimates  2,100,000.     1896,  about  1000  Europeans. 

The  most  important   provinces  are  Usambara,  Usagara,  Uhelie,     Divisions. 
Uniamwesi,  Karagwe,  Iramba,  Konde,  Kawende,    Iluanda,  Usukuma, 
further  the  Matia  island  in  the  Indian  Ocean  and  Ukerewe   in   the 
Victoria  Nyanza. 

A  so-called  Protectorate,  but  in  reality  a  direct  possession.         P.^sscssion. 
Dr.  Peters,    Dr.  Jtthlke,    and    Count   Joachim    Pfeil   lauded    in      Histoiy. 


Saadani  on  the  4th  November,  1884,  and  concluded,  as  representatives    Frontier, 
of  the  German  Colonisation  Society  the  first  commercial   treaty  on  Regulations, 
the  19th  November,  having  at  the  same  time  hoisted  the  German  flag 
in  M'buzimi. 

1885,  February  12th  (3rd  March),  Formation  of  the  German 
East  Africa  Company  in  Berlin  by  Dr.  Carl  Peters,  who  was  furnished 
with  an  Imperial  Privilege,  etc.,  on  tlio  27th  February  (Special  trea- 
ties witli  the  chiefs,  8th  of  April,   lOtli  and  19th  of  June,  26th  of 


November,  29tli  of  November,  and  9th  of  December).   14tli  of  August, 
Geriiiaii   I'lotectorate  recognised  by  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar. 

188(),  .lun*-',  the  (Jeniian  part  of  the  territory  in  the  Sultanate 
of  ^Vitu  ai'(|uired  by  the  l>rothers  Denhardt  became  the  ])roi)erty 
(d"  the  (Jerman  East  Africa  Company.  —  29th  Octobei-  (1st  No- 
vember), Regulation  of  tlie  North  Frontier  ^vith  England. 

1887,  March  27t]i,  The  rights  of  a  body  corporate  granted  to 
the  German   East  Africa  C'omi)auy. 

1888,  Arab  rebellion.  —  16th  August,  the  tract  of  coast  from 
Wauga  to  IvoYuma  taken  over.  (Convention  ivith  Zanzibar,  28tk  April, 

1889,  October  22nd,  Declaration  of  the  German  Protectorate 
over  the  coast  from  Witu  to  Kismayu,  followed  by  claims  from 
England.  —  17th  August  of  the  same  year,  Baron  Lambermont's 
arbitration  in  reference  to  liamu. 

1890,  March,  Wissman  appointed  Imperial  Governor. 

1890,  July  1st  (17th  June),  Treaty  hetiveen  Germany,  England 
and  the  Stdtan  of  Zanzibar,  determining  the  present  frontiers 
of  the  possession.  (Uganda  comes  under  the  British  Sphere  of 
Interest).  —  27th  October,  The  indemnity  of  4  million  Marks  fixed. 
—  17th  November,  France  gives  her  consent. 

1896,  Wissraann  retires. 

(iovenimeiit.  The  Government  is  administrated  by  an  Imperial  Governor,  who 

has  his  residence  at  Ddr  ea  salam  (6000  inhabitants). 

British  East  Africa. 

Official  title.  Imperial  British  East  Africa  (usually  abbreviated  I.  B.  E.  A.). 

All  the  British  possessions  in  East  Africa  excepting  Zanzibar, 

Pemba  and  Uganda,  bear  since  1896  Aug.  the  name  of  the  ''East  Africa 

Protectorate".  The  „ Uganda  Protectorate"  existe  since  1896,  July. 


The  Indian  Ocean  from  the  mouth  of  the  Umba  to  that  of  the  p>ontiers. 
Juba  forms  the  East  frontier.  The  boundary  line  proceeds  along 
the  Juba,  the  upper  course  of  which  is  still  unexplored,  as  far  as 
the  crossing  of  the  40*^  East  Longitude  of  Greenwich  and  the  6" 
North  Latitude,  whence  it  follows  the  latter  (Anglo-Italian  agreement 
24t1i  March  and  15th  April  1891)  to  35'*  Longitude  East  of  Green- 
wich, and  so  to  the  Bahr  el  azraq  or  Blue  Nile.  The  North  frontier 
towards  the  Mahdi's  dominion  is  not  fixed;  in  general  the  10'^  North 
Latitude  may  be  taken  as  an  approximative  frontier.  The  Soutii 
frontier  is  the  North  frontier  of  German  East  Africa  (which  see); 
the  West  frontier  (see  the  East  frontier  of  the  Congo  State),  runs 
along  the  30"  Longitude  East  of  Greenwich  across  the  Albert 
Edward  Lake  and  along  the  Semliki  on  the  West  of  the  Albert 
Lake  through  the  Niam  Niam  lands  to  10"  North  Latitude  and  Soutli 

2,600,000  sq.  km.  or  one  million  square  miles.    Uganda  alone       Area, 
contains  80,000  sq.  km. 

Roughly  estimated,    about   five  million  inhabitants.     Up   to  the  Population. 
l)resent,  the  English  have  published  no  official  census. 

The  L  B.  E.  A.  possessions  embrace  Uganda,  Usoga,  Unioro,  Ankori,    Divisions. 
Mpororo,  Koki,    a  part  of  Ruanda;    the  Niam  Niam    countries,   the 
former  Egyptian  Equatorial  Province  of  Emin  Pasha,  also,  according 
to    some    accounts,    a   part   of  Kordofan   and   Dar-Fur,   Kawirondo, 
Massai,  and  a  part  of  the  Galla  and  Somali  countries. 

L5th  June  1895,  British  Protectorate  declared  over  the  whole  Possession, 
country   from    the   Indian  Ocean    to  Uganda,    including   the   former 
Sultanate  of  Witu. 

The  coast  territory  belongs,  as  already  mentioned,  to  the  Sultan  History, 
of  Zanzibar.  7th  February  1824,  Admiral  Owen,  who  in  the  fri-  Fi.y„tier! 
gate  "Leven"  dropped  anchor  off  Mombassa,  declared  Mombassa,  the  i^eguiation. 


island  Teinha,  aud  t\w  coast  from  ]\roliiuli  to  raiigani  under  Britisli 
ProtiH'ti<»n.  on  tlio  strongtli  of  a  convention  witli  the  Sultan  of 
Zanzibar,  and  despite  the  presence  of  a  Heet  from  Maskat.  This 
act  ^Yas  not  ratitied,  and  tlie  British  flag  was  consequently  lowered 
in  jNIombassa,  tiie  Kni;lish  ofticials  left,  and  the  country  remained 
in  tlie  hands  of  Arabs  from  jNFasUat  till  185G,  wlien  tlie  Sultan  of 
Zan/ihar  took  ])ossession. 

1885,  April  8th.  Denhart  Brothers  received  land  from  the  Sultan 
of  Witu,  which  they  ])laced  under  a  German  Protectorate  27th  of  May. 

1887,  May  24th.  The  stretch  of  land  from  Wan^ja  to  Ki])ini 
handed  over  to  the  British  East  Africa  Com])any. 

1888,  October  9th.  Sultan  of  Zanzibar  ceded  the  stretch  of 
coast  from  Umba  to  Ozi  to  the  Imperial  British  East  Africa 
Company  for  tifty  years. 

1889,  August  31st.  The  Sultan  yields  up  all  his  possessions 
North  of  Kipini  to  the  Company. 

1890,  July  1st.  The  British  Sphere  of  Interest  more  definitely 
fixed  by  Germany  and  England.  —  5th  August,  Recognition  of 
the  British  Protectorate  by  France.  —  19th  November.  British 
Protectorate  over  Witu,  Kismaju,  Patta,  Manda. 

1891,  The  company  took  over  all  the  land  from  Umba  to 
Juba  (400  miles  length  of  coast),  from  the  Sultan  for  a  yearly 
payment  of  80,000  dollars,  and  at  the  same  time  the  ports  North 
of  Kumayu  were  by  the  Anglo-Italian  convention  of  24th  March 
{16th  July)  18 93  leased  by  the  Company  to  Italy. 

1892,  March  30th.  Protectorate  treaty  with  Uganda. 

1893,  End  of  March.  The  Company,  which  had  occupied  the 
whole  territory  as  far  as  Uganda,  the  Albert  Edward  Lake,  and 
Semliki  River,  retires  from  Uganda. 

1893,  July  31st.  The  Company  gives  up  the  administration 
of  AVitu. 

1894,  June    19th.    British  Protectorate  declared  over  Uganda. 


1895,  June  15tli.  The  whole  of  the  lands  of  the  I.  B.  E.  A. 
placed  under  British  protection,  and  the  administration  taken  over  by 
England  on  the  30th  June,  and  placed  under  the  control  of  the 
British  Consul  General  at  Zanzibar. 

The  Uganda  province  is  under  a  commissioner,  who  is  subordinate  Oovemment. 
to  the  British  Agent  and  Commissioner  at  Zanzibar,  who  is  also 
responsible  for  order  along  the  coast  for  a  distance  of  ten  miles  inland 
and  for  the  maintenance  of  the  communication  between  the  coast 
and  Uganda.  —  A  railway  657  miles  long  is  being  built  from  Mom- 
bassa  to  the  Victoria  Nyanza.  A  road,  100  miles  long,  runs  from 
Morabassa  to  Kibwezi. 

The  chief  town  of  Uganda  is  —  Mengo  (seat  of  the  British  authori- 
ties: Por/^  Alice),  Seat  of  the  government,  Mombassa,  15,000  inhabitants. 

British  Possession  in  Somaliland  and 


Somali  Coast  Protectorate.  (Hiiciai  title. 

The  frontier  line  leaves  the  sea-coast  West  of  Zejla  on  the  Frontiers. 
Gulf  of  Aden  at  Cape  Wahadii,  and  stretches  southward  across 
Lovadu  (Lavada),  Davali,  Abasuen,  and  Biokaboba  to  Dshildessa.  Here 
it  turns  towards  the  South-East  to  Milmil,  then  follows  the  8"  North 
Latitude  Eastwards  to  the  48'^  Longitude  East  of  Greenwich, 
whence  it  runs  N.  E.  as  far  as  Wadi  Nogal  and  from  this  valley 
directly  North  along  the  49"  Longitude  East  of  Greenwich  to  the 
coast  again,  which  it  reaches  at  the  seaport.  Bender  Ziada.  (Franco- 
FMfillsh  Afjrcement  of  2nd  of  Fehniary  1888,  and  Anglo-Italian 
Convention  of  5th  of  May  1894.) 

77,000  sq.  km. ;  English  estimates  "about  75,000  square  miles", 

Count   KiriBky:    "The  Diplomatist'H  Handbook  Tor  Africa".  ^^ 



Pupuintion.  Population :  240,000. 

iMvisions.  The   possessioii   embraces   tlie   provinces   of  Ejssa  (Tsa),    (Jada- 

bnrssi.   llabr    Aiuil,    llabr    Gerliadjii,    Dolbohauta,    llabr   Toldshalej, 
\Var  Siniieli  Somali. 

i>.,.^...>.i.,„  Protectorate    of   Great   Britain,    whicli    liowever    resembles    an 

actual  possession,  although  some  of  the  Somali  chiefs  receive  subsidies 
from  the  British  Government. 

iii«ituiy.  As    early    as    1827,    England  had  established   herself   on  the 


Somali  coast   from   Aden  and  India,    and  in    1855  concluded    con- 
Ro-iiiation,    yentions  from  Berbera  with  the  most  important  Somali  chiefs  (Ugases, 
Garades,  Sultans). 

1875.  Occupation  of  the  Somali  coast  by  the  Egyptians. 

1884.  Egyptians  evacuate  the  districts.  Since  1887,  England 
has  occupied  the  ports  under  the  title  of  a  protectorate. 

1885.  March;  Ejssa,  Gadaburssi  and  Habr  Aual  Somali  under 
British  Protectorate. 

1888,  February  2nd.  Regulation  of  the  West  frontier  hy  a 
Franco-Mncjlish   Convention. 

1889,  December  13th.  Regulation  of  the  Protectorate.  (Somali 
Order  in  Council). 

1894,  May  5th.  The  frontiers  determined  by  means  of  an 
Anglo-Italian  Agreement. 

Govenimeiit  The    territory    is    administered   by  the   political   agent    of  the 

governor  of  Aden,  who  is  at  the  same  time  Consul  for  the  Somali 
Coast.  (Seat  of  the  Vice  Consul  and  British  Agent,  Berbera).  In 
the  winter  30,000  inhabitants,  during  the  summer  almost  deserted. 

The  Sokotra  Archipelago  embraces  the  Islands  Sokotra,  Abd  el 
Kury  and  the  Brothers  Islands  with  an  area  of  3579  scj.  km.  (1382 
square  miles,  including  the  area  of  Kuria  Muria  on  the  Arabian 
coast)  and  10,000  inhabitants.  The  greater  part  of  the  archipelago 
was  bought  from  the  Sultan  of  Sokotra  in  1875,  and  in  accordance 


Avitli  the  rights  of  preemption,  which  were  obtaiued  by  a  treaty 
with  the  Sultan  of  Kashin  in  South  Arabia,  1876,  occupied  by  Eng- 
land 30th  September,  1886,  and  administered  from  Aden.  An  agent 
and  a  small  garrison  are  stationed  at  Tamarida  on  the  North  coast. 

French  Possession  on  the  Gulf  of  Aden. 

Cote  Frangaise  des  Sonialis  et  dependances  (formerly   Ohock.)      Official  title. 

The  Gulf  of  Aden  starting  from  Raheita  (Ras  Dumejra  12^  30'  Frontiers. 
North  Latitude)  via  the  Gubet  el  Kharaib  (Virgin's  Water)  as 
far  as  Cape  Lovadu  or  Ras  Ali  (Wells  of  Hadu)  25  km.  East  of 
Ras  Dshibuti  (250  km.)  forms  the  East  frontier.  The  frontier  then 
runs  along  the  caravan  tract  from  Dshibuti  across  Lovadu,  Dauah, 
Abasuen  to  Bia  Kaboba  and  Dshildessa.  A  West  and  South  Sphere 
of  Interest  is  considered  as  extending  across  the  Somali  and  Afar 
(Danakil)  countries  to  the  foot  of  the  Abyssinian  mountains.  The 
courses  of  the  Raheita  River,  the  Hawash,  and  its  tributary  Addifuha, 
denote  the  direction  of  the  North  West  frontier.  Anglo-French 
agreement,  2nd  February^  1888. 

French  estimates,    120,000  sq.  km.   but  generally  supposed  to        Area, 
be  only  10,000    sq.   km.  (3860    square    miles);    British   estimation: 
43,320  sq.  m. 

Population  200,000    estimated   officially  1890;  50,000    1897.    Popuiation. 
(Somali  and  Afar  or  Danakil);  probably  much  larger. 

The   possession    embraces  Obock  witii    its  territories,  to  which     Divisions, 
belong  the  island  of  Dumejra,  Dshezira  Soba,  Les  Freres    and   the 
Musha   Islands    in    Gubet    el  Kharaib;  further    Tadshura,    Ambabo, 
Dullul,   Sagallo,   Dshibuti   together    with    the    Interior   belonging   to 
these  points.     Roads  lead  to  Shoa  and  Ilarar. 



Possessi.m.  The  points  ou  the  coast  form  the  actual  possession  of  France, 

and  are  all  occupied,  ^\hereas  the  interior  of  the  Afar  Country  can 
only  be  considered  a  Sphere  of  Interest.  The  territory  was  organised 
as  a  Colony  by  a  decree  of  the  20tli  May,   1896. 

History.  1857.    Henri    Lambert    appointed    Consular    Agent    in    Aden, 

Trenties.  j^gg^^j.^^^,^|  himself  Avitli  Aber  Baker  of  Tadshura,  who  sold  the 
stretch  of  land  from  Kas  Ali  and  Uano  to  France  for  10,000 
thalers.     Lambert  was  murdered  on  the  4th  of  June,   1859. 

1861,  January.  Admiral  Fleuriot  de  Langle  installs  Abu  Baker 
as  governor  of  Zejia. 

1862,  March  11th.  France  purchases  Obock  from  Ras  Dumejra 
to  Ras  Ali. 

1872.  Pierre  Arnoux's  treaty  with  Menelik  of  Shoa,  by  which 
the  rights  of  the  Negus  are  recognised. 

1883,  March  17th.  Italy  attempts  to  obtain  the  protectorate 
over  Gubet  Kharaib.     France  occupies  Obock  officially. 

1884,  October  18th.     Tadshura  becomes  French   by  purchase. 

1885,  May  20th.  French  Protectorate  over  Tadshura,  Ambabo 
Sagallo,  and  Gubet  Kharaib,  and  annexation  of  these  territories  the 
same  year.     England  cedes  the  Musha  Islands  to  France. 

1886,  March  3rd.  Obock  becomes  a  penal  colony  for  Arab 

1887,  Division  of  Tadshura  Bay  between  England  and  France. 

1888,  January  and  February.  France  occupies  Ras  Dshibuti 
and  regulates  the  East  frontier  hy  convention  with  England  of  the 
2nd  of  February. 

1889,  January  11th.  Landing  of  the  Russians  in  Sagallo  under 
Atschiuoff  (175  men,  6  priests).  18tli  February,  Bombardment  of 

1896,  May  20th.  Organisation  of  the  Colony,  and  removal  of 
the  governmental  residence  from  Obock  to  Ras  Dshibuti. 


A   governor  is  responsible  for  the  administration.     Chief  town  Government, 
and  port,  Bds  DshihuU,  3000  inhabitants. 

Italian  Possession  in  North  East  Africa. 

For  the   single  territories  —  Fossedimenti,  protettorati  Italiani  official  title. 
in   Africa  —  there    exist   different   official  names:   Eritrea,  Assah, 
Costa  del  Benadir,  Somalia  Italiana. 

In  consequence  of  the  defeat  of  the  Italians  on  the  1st  March  Frontiers. 
1896,  at  Adua,  their  possession  in  Africa  is  at  present  undergoing 
a  political  change.  Omitting  Abyssinia,  which  would  never  submit 
to  an  Italian  protectorate  as  provided  by  the  treaty  of  Utshali  2nd 
May  1889,  the  boundary  lines  may  be  defined  as  follows.  They 
begin  at  Ras  Kasar,  18'^  2'  North  Latitude,  and  on  the  Falkat  River, 
according  to  the  Anglo-Italian  treaty  of  May  1887,  (Italian  Green 
Book  laid  before  the  Italian  Chamber  25th  April  1888),  run  in  a 
straight  line  to  the  right  bank  of  the  Barka,  follow  it  in  the  direction 
of  Kassala,  which  the  Italians  took  and  occupied  in  1894,  thence 
probably  following  the  Lareb  Eastward.  Before  the  war  of 
1895— 1896,  the  line  extended (yl«^/o-/^rtl?rtw  treaties  24th  March  and 
15th  April,  1891,  ratified  on  the  25th  February  1890)  from  Clior 
Gash  South-westerly  towards  the  Atbara,  followed  this  and  the  Semsen 
and  Rabat  to  35V2"  Longitude  East  of  Greenwich  and  to  the  6th 
Parallel  Northern  Latitude.  Proceeding  along  this  Parallel  to  40'' 
Longitude  East  of  Greenwich,  it  then  followed  the  undefined  course 
of  the  Juba  to  its  outlet  into  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  course  of 
the  Mareb  may  in  future  form  the  South  frontier  of  the  Italian 
possession  adjoining  Abyssinia. 

Towards  the  South-East  of  Ras  Kasar,   18"  2'  North  Latitude, 
the  coast  of  the  Red  Sea   borders  the  Italian   possession  as  far  as 


Kalieita  12"  30'  North  Latitude.  The  ocean  frontier  starts  agam 
near  Hender  Ziada  in  the  Somali  countr}',  bends  ronnd  Cape  Gnar- 
dafui,  and  ends  at  tlie  month  of  tlie  Juba.  As  tlie  Frencli  possession 
on  tlie  (inlf  of  Aden  has  no  fixed  frontiers  in  the  West  and  East, 
and  on  the  other  hand  INIenelik  11  of  Ethiopia  declared  himself 
sovereign  of  the  whole  of  the  African  East  Horn  in  1885,  only 
the  An(jIo-Ital}an  Ayreemenfs  of  the  21th  March  mid  15th  Apr'tl, 
lS!fl,  the  5th  ami  25th  May,  1894,  concerning  the  demarcation  of 
British  Somali  Country,  the  Italian  Sphere  of  Interest  as  well  as  the 
Somali  Italiana,  can  be  authoritative. 

Divisions.  The    Italian   possession    embraces  Massowah  with  its    territory, 

the  Dahlak  Archipelago,  the  i)rotectorate  over  Habab,  Marea,  and 
Beni  Amer,  the  protectorate  over  Aussa  and  the  Danakil  coast,  as 
well  as  all  the  Afar  races  depending  on  Aussa,  Assab,  the  Baheita 
protectorate,  and  that  over  East  and  South  Somali  country  (the  races 
of  Midshurtin  near  Obbia,  Merihan,  Ogaden,  Hawiya  Rahanwin)  and  the 
Gallaland  as  far  as  Dshub  (Juba)  thus,  principally  the  Arussi-Galla 
land.  For  the  present  it  is  impossible  to  give  an  exact  description 
of  the  Italian  Dominion  on  the  African  East  Horn,  as  the  extent 
of  the  actual  Abyssinian  government  there  is  unknown.  Abyssinian 
outposts  are  stationed  near  Bia  kaboka  in  the  Gadaburssi  Somali- 
land,  and  in  the  Marar  Prairie  (towards  Ogaden),  and  Abyssinian 
bands  raise  tribute  far  into  Ogaden,  having  in  1895  also  ransacked 
Bardera  on  the  Juba  river. 

Area.  145,000  sq.  km.    (487,000  square  miles),  according  to  Italian 

statements  247,300  sq.  km.;  with  the  area  of  the  Somali  and  Galla- 
lands  775,000  sq.  km.,  including  Abyssinia  and  Shoa,  1,676,000 
square  miles. 

Population.  The  population  was  estimated  in  1893,   according  to  the  state 

of  affairs  then  prevailing,  and  was  set  down  as  150,000  for  the 
occupied  territories;    but  when  the  whole  area    is   taken   into   con- 


sideration,    it  would    certainly    amount    to  more    than  two  millions, 
Abyssinia    and  dependencies  always  excepted. 

Massowah    and    the    Interior,    also    Assab,    direct    possession    Possession, 
(possedimento).  The  protectorate    is   formed  by  Habab,  Marea,  Beni 
Amer,   Aussa,    the    Danakil    coast,    and  Raheita,    also    the    Somali 
territories.    The  Gallalands  can  only  be  taken  as  Sphere  of  Interest. 

The  coast  was  visited  by  the  Portuguese  in  the  15th  Century.      History. 

1520,  Diego  Lopez  landed  in  Massowah. 

1557,  Turks  took  Massowah,  installing  a  Habab  chief  as  gover-     Frontier. 

, . ,  -         /.  -vx  •  1  Re";nlation. 

nor  with  the  title  of  Naib. 

1866,  Turks  formally  cede  Massowah  to  Egypt. 

1870,  The  Rubattino  Company  purchase  Assab,  and  surrender 
it  in  1879  to  the  Italian  Government.  Egyptian  protest  1st  July  1870. 

1874,  Khedive  Ismail  Pasha  occupies  Keren  and  marches  on  Tigre. 

1882,  July  5th.  Law  concerning  the  organisation  and  recognition 
of  Assab  as  a  colony.  Occupied  on  the  9th  January  1881. 

1884,  Taking  of  Kassala.    Raheita  under  Italian  Protectorate. 

1885,  February  6th.  The  Italians  under  San  Marzano  occupy 

1885,  June.  Italian  protectorate  over  the  Danakil  coasts, 
2  December.  Civil  administration  in  Massowah. 

1887,  January  26th.  Defeat  of  the  Italians  at  Dogali. 

1887,  July  otii.  General  Saletta's  protectorate  treaty  with  Kjin- 
tibai  concerning  Habab. 

1888.  Conclusion  of  the  protectorate  treaty  with  Berehan, 
Sultan  of  Raheita,  and  acceptation  of  the  protectorate  by  the 
Marea,  (January). 

1888,  December,  2nd.  General  Baldissera's  Protectorate  treaty 
with  Deglel  concerning  the  Beni  Amer. 

1888,  December,  6th.  Treaty  with  the  Sultan  of  Aussa  respecting 
the  protectorate  (ratified  13th  November,   1889). 


1889,  Fobniar.v,  8tli,  (lOth  May).  The  Sultan  of  Obbia  i)laces 
liimself  iukKm-  tin-  Italian  protectorate.  In  April  and  November  the 
protectorate  was  exteniled,  by  a  treaty  with  tlie  Mitlshurtin  Sultan, 
to  the  territory  between  5"  33'  and  8"  13'  North  I.atitude.  12th  July, 
Occupation  of  Asmara.  29th  September,  Frontier  Regulation  with 

1S89.  May  2nd.  (25th  Miazza  1881)  Tn-aty  of  (ffsha/i,  by  which 
tiie  Abyssinians  bind  themselves  to  accept  the  intervention  of  Italy 
in  foreign  attairs  (ratified  29th  September,  1889,  Italian  Green  Book 
4th  March  1890).  This  treaty  was  never  recognised  by  Abyssinia 
(Paragraph  17,  .l/>J/<n/.s//.-  " it^hallautshal" ^  "pourra"  or  "devra"). — 
May  20th,  Occupation  of  Keren. 

1890,  January  1st.  Incorporation  of  the  Assab  colony  with 
Eritrea.  —  14th  January.    The  Italians  enter  Adua. 

1892,  August  26th.  The  Sultan  of  Zanzibar  cedes  the  coast  of 
Obbia  as  far  as  Juba  by  lease  to  the  Italians.  Italian  administration 
instituted  September,   1893. 

1893,  July  16th.  Italian  Government  hands  over  the  administra- 
tion of  the  Benadir  ports  (Merka,  Brava,  Maqdishu,  Warsheik,  Itala) 
for  3  years  to  Messrs.  S.  Filonardi  and  Co.,  who  pay  160,000 
rupees  annually  to  the  Sultan. 

1896,  March  1th.     Battle  of  Abba  Garima. 

1896,  June  25th.  Formation  of  the  "Societa  anonima  com- 
merciale  Italiana  nei  Benadir".  (Somalia  Italiana.) 

1897,  January  7th.  Publication  of  the  terms  of  peace  with  Italy. 

Oovemiueiit  A  Governor  superintends  the  administration  of  Eritrea,  assisted 


by  Royal  Commissioners. 

Seat  of  GoveiTiment,  Massowah,   16,000  inhabitants  (1891). 



Itjopja,  El  Hdhasha,  Ahessinien,  Abyssinia,  Ahyssinie,  Abissinia,  official  title. 

Abyssinia    borders   in    tlie  Xorth  on  Eritrea,    in    the  East   on    Frontiers, 
the  Italian  and  French  Danakil  and  Somalilaud,  the  territory  of  the     D'^^'»»o"«- 
Italian  Sphere   of  Interest;  in  the  South  on  the  protectorate  of  the 
I.  B.  E.  A.;  in  the  West  on  the  conntries   of  the  I.  B.  E.  A.  and 
the  Mahdi's  Empire.  An  exact  topographical  limitation  is  not  possible. 
So  niucli  may  be  said,  however  that  Abyssinia  has  no  sea-port. 

The  country  is  formed  of  provinces  and  the  partial  Kingdoms 
of  Tigre,  Amhara,  Godsham,  Shoa,  Harar,  and  the  Galla  territory, 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Abaj  (upper  course  of  the  Blue  Nile), 
Gudru,  Djimma  etc.,  then  of  Kaffa,  Wallamo,  and  the  Sidama  terri- 
tories, and  extends  with  the  South  frontier  to  the  vicinity  of  the 
Rudolf  and  Stefanie  Lakes,  in  the  South  East  as  far  as  the  Erer 
and  Webi  Shebeli.  The  provinces  governed  by  ''ras"  are:  Semien, 
Dembea,  Tigre,  Sakota,  Begemeder,  Yetzoo,  Aroossi,  Goorage, 
Marocco,  Galla  to  the  west  of  Kaffa,  Harar,  and  Tchertcher. 

About  500,000  sq.  km.  (The  Abyssians  give  2,500,000.)  Area. 

Population :  4:%  millions.    (The  Abyssinians   give  15,000,000.)  Population. 

Absolute  barbaro-tyrannical  country  under  the  rule  of  Negusa  VasspssUm. 
Neghest  ("King  of  Kings"),  or  Ati,  at  present  Menelik  II  of  Shoa, 
whose  vassals  are  the  monarchs  of  Tigre,  Godsham,  Galla  lands, 
and  Harar.  Italy  claimed  in  vain,  on  the  strength  of  the  treaty 
of  Utshali  2nd  May  (1st  October)  1889,  the  right  of  protection  over 
Abyssinia.  The  latter  never  recognised  the  riglh  but  on  the  other 
hand  frequently  protested  against  it  to  tlie  European  Powers. 

Count  Kinsky:  "The  Dii'Iomatisfs  Handbook  for  Africa".  13 


History.  An  ancient  Semitic  empire  originally  consisting  of  five  large  in- 

rivatios.  (dependent  territories,  whose  inhabitants  are  monophisitic  Christians, 
with  kings  fleeted  from  amongst  themselves  as  Negusa  Neghest. 
Once  governed  in  the  North  by  Byzantines.  1520,  visited  by  the 
Portngnese,  when  they  had  already  a  considerable  history.  It  is  pro- 
bable that  the  empire  extended  over  the  whole  African  East  Horn. 
Abyssinia's  Mohammedan  rival  in  the  East,  the  Adel  Empire  (later 
Harar)  arose  abont   1300  A.  D.  and  flonrished  about  1500. 

1534,  Invasion  of  the  Galla  into  the  Ethiopian  Empire  and 
settlement  there. 

1536  to  1543,  Wars  of  Muhammed  Granj,  monarch  of  Adel 
against  Abyssinia;  the  Portuguese  under  Cliristoforo  da  Gama  in 

1538  —  1539, Turks  support  the  enemies  of  Abyssinia  with  an  army. 

1680 — 1704,  Invasion  of  the  Galla  in  Central  Amliara. 

1743 — 1807,  Taking  of  the  Galla  territory  by  the  Abyssinians. 

1766 — 1858,  Civil  war  in  the  Sidama  countries  in  the  South 
of  Shoa. 

1805  and  following  years,  Lord  Valentia,  1809  Salt,  visit 
Abyssinia  with  presents  from  Britain. 

1843,  June  7th,  Conclusion  of  a  trade  and  friendly  treaty  by 
Rochert  d'Hericourt  iti  the  name  of  King  Louis  FMlipye,  between 
France  and  Abyssinia.     This  treaty  is  still  in  force. 

1846,  Harris'  British  expedition  to  Shoa. 

1854 — 1855,  Extinction  of  the  ruling  dynasties  of  Djimma, 
Kaha,  and  Ennerea. 

1858,  Commencement  of  the  Galla  war  of  Negusa  Neghest 

1864 — 1896,  Subjection  of  the  Galla  by  Ras  Govanna  and  Ras 

1867 — 1868,  Enghsh  campaign,  and  taking  of  Magdala. 

1874,  Egyptian  war  against  Abyssinia.  The  Egyptians  routed 
at  Gura. 


1880,  German  mission  to  Abyssinia  under  Gerhard  Rohlfs. 

1884,  June  3rd,  Treaty  of  Adua  between  Abyssinia,  England, 
and  Egypt.     Negus  retains  the  sovereignty  over  Bogos. 

1885,  February  25th,  Landing  of  Itahans  in  Massowah.  — 
26th  May,  Harar  deserted  by  the  Egyptians. 

1886,  January,  Taking  of  Harar  by  tlie  Shoans.  MeueHk  II 
declares  himself  sovereign  of  the  whole  African  East  Horn. 

1887,  Defeat  of  the  Italians  near  Dogali. 

1889,  January  18th.  APaissian  expedition  under  Atshinoff  attempts 
to  advance  upon  Abyssinia  across  Obock.  Atshinoff  plants  the  Russian 
flag  at  Sagallo,  but  the  French  admiral  Olry  bombards  the  fortress, 
and  carries  off  the  Russians  as  prisoners  to  Obock. 

1889,  May  2nd,  Frotectorate  treaty  at  Utshali  with  Italy  (ratified 
29th  September  in  Rome),  extended  in  October  to  mutual  protection. 

1889,  May,  Campaign  against  the  Mahdi's  followers  and  10th 
March,  death  of  Negusa  Neghest  John  U.  —  Menelik  II  of  Shoa 
became  Negusa  Neghest  of  Ethiopia.  —  29th  September,  (additional 
clause,  1st  October)  Frontier  regulation  with  Italy,  by  which  the  Negus 
recognises  Italy's  possessory  rights. 

1889,  October  22nd,  Coronation  of  Menelik  at  Antotto. 

1890,  British  mission  to  Abyssinia  under  Sir  G.  H.  Portal. 
1890 — 1894,  Second  Journey   of  the  Russian  Cossack   officer 

Mashkotf  to  Harar  and  to  Menelik  II. 

1891,  February  11th,  Protest  against  the  Utshali  treaty. 
1895 — 1896,  War  between  Abyssinia  and  Italy. 

1895,  Russian  expedition  under  Leontjeff  to  Abyssinia,  and 
despatch  of  an  Abyssinian  legation  to  Moscow  and  St.  Petersburg. 

1896,  Summer,  Deputation  of  Pope  Leo  XIII  to  Menelik  II 
with  reference  to  the  liberation  of  the  Italian  prisoners. 

1896,  October  26th,  Treaty  of  Peace  with  Italy.  Abolition  of 
the  Utshali  treaty  and  recognition  of  Abyssinia's  independence. 
After  the  expiration  of  a  year,  frontier  regulation  to  follow. 


Government.  1897,    Jaiiiiarv    '21t\u    Coucliisioii    of  Frauco-Abyssiuiau    trade 


(•(Hivt'iition  at  Harar.  British  mission  iiikKt  Ucimell  Kodd  to  Menelik  II. 
The  Negusa  Negliest  governs  the  extensive  Empire  through  Ras 
or  Governors  of  the  provinces,  and  Shum  or  District  Administrators. 
Imperial  residence,  Adc^is  ahahd  in  Shoa.   50,000  inliahitants. 

Although  tlie  exact  position  of  tlie  European  Powers  is  not  quite 
clear,  the  Negusa  Neghest  is  better  disposed  towards  France,  which 
has  obtained  a  firm  footing  from  Dshibuti  in  Harar  and  Shoa.  The 
old  convention  (Alliance  et  commerce)  of  tlie  7th  June,  1843, 
concluded  by  dTlericourt  with  Menelik's  grandfather,  Sahla  Selassie 
of  Shoa,  stands  France  in  good  stead.  Abyssinia  is  the  only 
part  of  Africa  in  which  Russia  has  recently  had  any  direct  and 
considerable  political  influence  —  an  influence  which  many  have 
wrongly  attributed  to  the  alleged  resemblance  of  the  Russian-Oriental 
to  the  Ethiopian  creed.  These  religious  propagandas  reach  far 
back  into  the  past.  The  Abyssinian  statesmen  display  towards 
England  a  reserve  almost  amounting  to  timidity.  Abyssinia  is 
completely  cut  off  from  the  sea-coast. 



Parliamentary  Papers  1882,  Nr.  18;  1885,  Nr.  11;  1886,  Xr.  1  —  Bluebook  C  5GG8. — 
Jolowicz,  Bibliotheca  Aegyptiaca  (Leipzig  1858,  Supplement  1861).  —  Kremer  von.  A.,  Aegypten 
(Leipzig  1863).  —  Bonclietti,  L'Egypte  et  ses  progres  sous  Ismail  Pacha  (Marseille  1867).  — 
Lane,  An  account  of  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  modern  Egyptians  (London  1871,  5th 
edition).  —  Stephayi,  Das  heutige  Aegypten  (Leipzig  1872).  —  Wyse,  Egypt  political,  financial, 
strategical  (London  1882).  —  Amici,  L'Egypte  ancienne  et  moderne  (Alexandrie  1884).  — 
Prince  Ibrahim  Hilmij,  The  Literature  of  Egypt  and  the  Soudan  from  the  earliest  times 
to  the  year  1885  (London  1886).  —  Plauchut,  L'Egypte  et  sa  occupation  anglaise  (Paris 
1880).    —   Revue  fran9aise  1891,  pag.  372.    —    Britain's  work  in   Egypt  (Edinburg  1892). 

—  Riissel  H.,  The  Soudan,  cause,  effect  and  remedy  (London  1892).  —  Scott  Keltic  J.,  States- 
man's Yearbook,  1802,  page  1054  etc.  —  Due  d'Harcourt,  L'Egypte  et  les  Egyptiens 
(Paris  1893).  —  Neumann  Th.,  Das  moderne  Aegypten  (Leipzig  1893).  —  FircJcs  A.. 
Freiherr  ton,  Aegypten  1894  (Berlin  1895  und  1896,  2  Bde.).  —  Revue  diplomatique  et 
coloniale  (Paris  1894  seqq.).  —  Hron  K.,  Aegypten  und  die  agyptische  Frage  (Leipzig  1895). 

—  Alis  H.,  Promenade  en  Egypte  (Paris  1895).  —  Pensa  H.,  L'Egypte  et  le  Soudan 
Egyptien  (Paris  1895).  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896,  3  Vols  ) 
I,  pp.  259—262;  III,  1072—1074. 

The  3Iah(li's  Dominion. 

Colborn,  With  Hicks  Pasha  in  the  Soudan  (London  1885).  —  Royle,  The  Egyptian 
campaigns  1882— 1885  (London  1886,  2  Vols.).  —  Wilson  C.  T.  and  Felkin  R.  TF.,  Uganda 
and  the  Egyptian  Soudan  (London  1887,  2  Vols.).  —  Buchta,  R.,  Der  Sudan  (Leipzig  1888). 

—  Emin  Pascha,  Eine  Sammlung  von  Reisebriefen  und  Berichten  Dr.  Emin  Pascha's 
(Leipzig  1888.  English:  London  1888).  —  Wingate  F.  R.,  Mahdiism  and  the  Egyptian 
Soudan  (London  1891).  —  GessiR.,  Sette  anni  nel  Sudan  egiziano  (Milano  1891).  —  Riissel  II., 
The  Soudan,  cause,  effect  and  remedy  (London  1892).  —  Chaille-Long  Bey,  L'Egypte  et 
ses  provinces  perdues  (Paris  1892).  —  OJirwalder  J.,  Aufstand  und  Reich  des  Mahdi  im 
Sudan  (Innsbruck  1892.  English:  London  1892).  —  Vita  Hassan,  Die  Wahrheit  iiber 
Emin  Pascha,  die  agyptische  Acquatorialprovinz  und  den  Sudan  (Berlin  1893,  2  Bde.).  — 
Statin  Pascha  R.,    Feuer   und  Schwert   im   Sudan    (Leipzig  1896;  English:  London  1896). 

—  I.  R.  United  Service,  I,  41  (1897):  65—79:  The  Dongola  Expedition  of  1896.  — 
AtteridyeA.  H.,   Towards  Khartoum.  The  story  of  the  Soudan  war  of  1896  (London  1897). 


Maltzan,  Freiherr  ron,  Reise  in  den  Regentschaften  Tunis  und  Tripolis  (Leipzig 
1870,  3  J{de.).  —  Petcrmann's  Mittheilungen  1887,  pag.  28.  —  Borsari  F.,  Geogi-afia 
e  storica  ctnologica  dclla  Tripolitania  c  Fczzan  etc.  (Napoli  1888).  —  Nachtiyal  G.,  Sahara 
und  Sudan  (Berlin  1879,  1881,  1889  3  Vols.).  —  Rohlfs  G.,  Kufra  (Leipzig  1881).  —  RoheccM- 
Bricchetti  L.,  Tripolitania  (Roma  1896J. 

(Jonnt  Kinsky:  "Tlic  Diplonnatisfa  Handbook  for  Africa".  14 



Dilhan,   Ilistoirc  abrcgi'o   ilc  la  ivf^encc   do  Tnnisic  (Paris  186G).   —  Desfossis,   La 
Tunisio  (Paris  1S77).  —  .lonrnal  Ofrtciol   de  la  Ri'imbliquo  Franvaisc,    27  et    28  Mai  1881. 

—  Behm-M'agner,  Bevolkcrung  dcr  Erdc  (Gotha  1882,  pag.  50  f.).  —  Le  Journal  Ofii- 
cicl  de  Tunis.  —  Playfair  E.,  Handbook  for  Algeria  and  Tunis  (London  1887).  —  El 
Kaid  el  Tunisia.  —  Petermann's  Mittlioilungen,  18S7,  pag.  28.  —  Riviere  A.,  La  Tunisic 
(Paris  1887).  —  Mai/er,  Cahier  coloniaux,  1»89,  pag.  ;585.  —  Ashbee  H.  S.,  A  biblio- 
graphy of  Tunisia  from  the  earliest  times  to  the  end  of  USS  (London  1889).  —  Lallc- 
mattd  C,  La  Tunisie,  pays  de  protectorat  fran^ais  (Paris  1891).  —  P.  H.  X.,  La  polititiue 
fVan^aise   en   Tunisie   (Paris    1891).    —  Fitzner  E.,    Die   Kcgentschaft  Tunis  (Berlin  1895). 

—  Clarin  de  la  Eire,  Histoire  generalo  de  la  Tunisie  (Paris  1895).  —  Planet  E., 
Corrcspondance  des  beys  do  Tunisie  et  des  consuls  de  France  avec  la  cour  1577 — 1830 
(Paris  1893—1895).  —  Livre  Jaune  (Traites  Tunisiens)  1896.  —  Kenseignemcnts  coloniaux 
et  documents  publies  par  le  comitt'  dc  rAfri(iue  Fran(;aise  Nr.  L  Lc  reglement  Italo- 
Tunisiens  etc.;  Nr  6. —  La  Tunisie,  1.  Histoire  et  description  (Paris  1896,  2  Vols).  —  L'Afrique 
Frani^aise  1896,  pp.  46,  83.  —  jffer^s^e/ ^.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896).  11, 
pp.  5i8— 553,  906—915. 

Grammont,  Histoire  d'Alger  sous  la  domination  turque  1815—183.0  (Paris  1857).  — 
Nettement,  Histoire  do  la  conquete  d'Alger  (Paris  1869).  —  Bulletin  Ofliciel  du  Gouverne- 
ment  general  de  TAlgerie  1873  seqq.  —  Journal  Officiel  de  I'Algerie.  —  Annuaire  gent'ral 
de  I'Algerie.  —  Sautaijra,  Legislation  de  I'Algerie  (Paris  1878).  —  Idem,  Relation  entre 
la  France  et  la  regence  d'Alger  au  17nie  siecle  (Paris  1882).  —  Guffarel  P.,  L'Algerie 
(Paris  1883).  —  Playfair  E  L.,  Handbook  of  Algeria  and  Tunis  (London  1887).  —  Eousset, 
L'Algerie  de  1830  a  1840  (Paris  1887,2  Vols.).  —  Le  Eoy-Beaulieu,  L'Algerie  et  la  Tunisie 
(Paris  1887).  —  Amat,  Le  M'zab  et  les  M'zabites  (Paris  1888).  —  Playfair  E.  L.,  A 
bibliography  of  Algeria  (London  1888).  —Eousset  C,  La  conquCte  de  TAlgerie  (1841— 1857) 
(Paris  1889,  2  Vols ).  —  Eohin,  Le  M'zab  et  son  annexion  a  la  France  (Alger  1889).  —  Idem, 
Bibliography  of  the  Barbary  States  (London  1889).  —  Mercier  E.,  Histoire  de  I'Afrique 
septentrionale  (Paris  1890  3  Vols.).  —  Choisy  M.  A.,  Documents  relatifs  a  la  mission  dirigee 
au  sud  de  I'Algerie  (Paris  1890).  —  De2)orter,  La  question  du  Touat  etc.  (Paris  1891).  — 
Alis  B.,  La  conquete  du  Tchad  (Paris  1891).  —  Ferry  J.,  Le  gouvernement  de  I'Algerie 
(Paris  1892).  —  Vignon  L.,  La  France  en  Algerie  (Paris  1893).  —  Vuillot  P.,  I/Exploration 
du  Sahara.  Etude  historique  et  gi'ographique  (Paris  1895)  —  Malher  Col.,  La  question  du 
Touat  (Paris  1895).  —  Vicarez  M.,  Au  sujet  du  Touat  (Alger  1896).  —  Gognyer  A..  Occu- 
pation de  Tarriere-terre  du  Maghreb  (Paris  1896).  —  Journal  Officiel,  1  Janvier  1897.  — 
HertsletE.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp.  287—290.  —  Foureau  F. 
Au  Sahara  (Paris  1897). 


Bernard,  Quatre  mois  dans  le  Sahara  (Paris  1881).  —  Erckmann,  Le  Maroc  moderne 
(Paris  1885).  —  Jannasch,  Die  deutsche  Handelsexpedition  in  Marokko  (Berlin  1886).  — 
Stutfield,  El  Moglireb  (London  1886).  —  De  la  Martiniire  E..  Bibliographic  du  Maroc, 
1844—1886  (Revue  de  geographic  1886,  Aofit).  —  Foucauld  Ch.  de,  Reconnaissance  au 
Maroc  1883—1884  (Paris  1888).  —  Ide7n,  Morocco  (London  1889).  —  Cora,  Cosmos,  IX, 
pag.  73.  —  Thomson  ./.,  Travels  in  the  Atlas  and  Southern  Morocco  (London  1889).  — 
Blackwood's  Magazine,  1889,  page  412.  —  Leared  A.,  Morocco  and  the  Moors  (London 
1891).  —  Bonsai  S.,  Morocco  as  it  is  (London  1893).  —  Diercks  (?.,  Marokko  und  die 
deutschen  Interessen  (Berlin  1893).  —  Wolfrom  G.,  Le  Maroc  (Paris  1893).  —  Picard  E., 
El  Moghreb  al  Aksa,    une  mission  Beige  au  Maroc  (Bruxelles  1893;.  —  Diercks  G.,  Meine 


Matcrialicn  zur  Kcnntnis  und  Beurtheilung  des  Schcrifenreiches  and  der  Marokko-Frage 
(Berlin  1894).  —  Merry  c  Colom  Fr.,  Mi  embajada  extraordinaria  a  Marruecos  en  18G3 
(Madrid  1894)  —  Libro  rojo  1894.  —  Canizares  y  Moyano  E.,  Apuntes  sobre  Marruecos 
(:\[adrid  1895).  —  Harris  W.  B.,  Tafilet  (London  1895).  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of 
Africa  by  Treaty  (London  189G),  II,  pp.  802—809,  894—902,  1062—1066. 

Spanish  Possessions  (Presidios,  Canaries,   Gaboon,   Islands  in  the 

Guinea  Gulf). 

Chil  y  Narctnjo  G.,  Estudios  historicos  .  .  .  de  las  Islas  Canarias  (Palmas  d.  g.  C. 
1876  et  1880).  —  Sorela  A.,  Les  possessions  espag-noles  en  Afrique  (Paris  1885).  —  Gaceta 
de  Madrid  1885  seqq.  —  Diplomatic  and  Consular  Reports  from  Spain  and  her  Colonies 
(London  1891).  —  Revista  geographica  commercial  1886,  Nr.  25.  —  Iradier  M.,  Africa 
(victoria  1887,  2  Vols.).  —  Baumann  0.,  Fernando  Poo  (Wien  1888).  —  Boletim  da  Sociedad  de 
Geographia  (Madrid  1888,  pag.  157).  —  Bulletin  Societe  de  Geographie  commerciale  (Paris  1888, 
Nr.  7).  —  Coello  F.,  La  cuestion  del  Rio  Muni  (Madrid  1889).  —  Boletim  da  Sociedad  de  Geographia 
(Madrid  1890,  pag.  7).  —  Verneau  R.,  Cinq  annees  de  sejour  aux  iles  Canaries  (Paris  1890). 

—  Eeparaz  G.,  Espana  en  Africa  (Madrid  1891).  —  Wayner-Supan,  Bevolkerung  der 
Erde,  Vllt.  (Gotha  1892,  pag.  170).  —  Eeparaz  G.,  Melilla.  Nociones  de  politica  hispano- 
raarroqui  (Madrid  1893).  —  Millares  A.,  Historia  general  de  las  Canarias  (Las  Palmas 
1893).  —  Bulletin  des  lois  de  la  Republique  Fran^aise  Nr.  888.  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map 
of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp.  882—902. 

Rio  d'oro. 

Boletim  da  Sociedad  de  Geographia  (Madrid  1885,  pag.  333).  — ^Globus,  1885,  18 
und  21.  —  Gimenez  S.,  Espana  en  el  Africa  Septentrional  (Madrid  1885).  —  Revista  goo- 
graphica  commercial  L  (1885— 1886,  page  11;  IL  1885—1887,  pp.  53,  100,  250).  —  Boletim  da 
Sociedad  de  Geographia  (Madrid  1885,  pag.  191,  1886,  pag.  1).  —  Perez  del  Toro  F.  Espana 
en  el  Nordeste  de  Africa  (Madrid  1886  et  1892).  —  Bonelli,'E\  Sahara  (Madrid  1887).  — 
Gaceta  ofticial,  6.  Abril  1S87.  —  Blackwood's  Magazine,  1889,  pag.  412.  —  Bulletin  Socit'tt' 
de  Geographie  (Paris  1889,  pag.  180).  —  Revue  Fran(;aise,  1891,  pag.  429.  —  Hertslet  E., 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  H,  pp.  886,  887. 

Madeira,  Azors,  Cap  Verde  Islands. 

Morclct,  lies  Avorcs  (I'aris  1860).  —  ScJiultze,  Die  Inscl  Madeira  (Stuttgart  1864).  — 

—  Doelter  C,  Die  A'ulkanc  der  Capverdischen  Inseln  und  ihre  Producte  (Leipzig  1881).  — 
Brown  A.  S.,  Madeira  and  the  Canary  Islands  (London  1891). 


.Journal  Ofticiel,  18  Octobre  1882,  20  Juillet,  28  Octobre  1890,  Fevricr,  16  Mars  1891, 
14  ct  27  Avril  1891.  —  Annales  Senegalaiscs  de  1854  a  1885,  suivies  des  traites  passes 
avcc  les  indigenes  (Paris  1885).  —  Annuaire  du  Senc'gal  1888  scqq.  —  Le  Brim  Renaiid, 
Lcs  possessions  fran^aiscs  de  TAfriijue  occidentale  (Paris  1885).  —  Ancclle,  Les  explorations 
au  Sent'gal  (Paris  1887).  —  Economiste  framjais,  21  Janvier  et  21  Juin  1888.  —  Faid- 
herbe,  Le  Si'megal  (Paris  1889).  —Bulletin  Societe  de  Geographie  (Paris  1889,  pag.  180).— 
Idem  Bordeaux.  1889,  page  614.  —  Wagner-Supan,  Bevolkerung  der  Erde,  VIIL,  pag.  161. 

—  Revue  francaise  1800,  pp.  308  et  488;  1891,  pag.  112.  —  Du  Sorbier  de  la  Tourasse 
J.,  Au  pays  de  Woloffs.  Souvenir  d'un  traitant  du  Sen^al  (Tours  1897).  —  Donnet  G., 
Une  mission  au  Sahara  occidental  (Paris  1896).  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by 
Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp    539,  640.  14* 


French  Soudan,  diuinon,  rvorv  Coast. 

IMuebook,  (.'  5it05.  —  Jourual  Oftiricl.  liS  Mars  1883.  —  Gallicni,  Voyage  an  Soudan 
franvais  (Paris  18S3).  —  Faidherhe,  Lo  Soudan  frani,ais  (Lillo  188G).  —  Faidhcrhe^  Lo 
St'ncgal.  La  Franco  dans  I'Afriqiie  occidentalo  (Paris  1889).  —  Peroz  E.,  Au  Soudan  franyais 
(Paris  1889).  —  Mayer,  Cahiers  coloniaux,  pag.  118.  —  Kevue  fran^aise,  1889,  pag.  705.— 
Les  Colonies  fran(,'aises  (Paris  1890,  Vols.  V  ct  VI,  pp.  160—230).  —  ProC('s-vcrbau.\ 
et  rapports  du  Congres  colonial  national  (Paris  1800).  —  Gaffarel  P.,  Lo  Senegal  et  le 
Soudan  franvais  (Paris  1890).  —  Kevue  gt'ograpliiciue,  1890,  pag.  210.  —  La  McUacoree  ct 
la  colonic  de  Sierra  Leone  (Paris  18901  —  Wagner-Supan,  Bevolkerung  der  Erde,  VIIL 
(Gotlia  1891,  pag.  105).  —  Journal  Ofticiel,  4  et  17  Ao&t  1891.  —  Kcnseignements  sur 
la  situation  des  Colonies  Nr.  35 — 38  (Paris  1891).  —  Armand  Ste.,  Note  sur  les  etablisse- 
mcnts  Frani^ais  de  la  Cote  d'or  (Paris  1891).  —  Binger,  Cap.,  Du  Niger  au  golfo  do 
(luini'e  par  le  pays  de  Kong  et  le  Mossi  (Paris  1891,  2  Vols.).  —  Idem,  Deux  campagnes 
au  Soudan  franvais  (Paris  1891).  —  Parliamentary  Papers  1892,  Nr.  7.  —  Sandenal  de,  0., 
Soudan  franvais  (Paris  1893).  —  liangon  A.,  Le  Bondou.  Etude  de  geographic  et  d'histoire 
Soudanicnnes  de  1681  a  nos  jours  (Bordeaux  1894).  —  Peroz,  Commandant,  Eecit  de  cam- 
pague  1891  et  1892  (Paris  1895).  —  I^e  Journal  Ofticiel  de  I'Afrii^ue  occidentale  Fran^aise. 

—  Hertslet  E.,   The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp.  582—587,  589—591. 

British  Possessions  in  West  Africa. 

Parliamentary  Papers  1865—1869.  —  Bluebook,  C  670,  C  4642,  C  4957,  C  5357, 
C  5373,  C  5905.  C  6354,  and  Reports  of  the  Colonial  oftice.  —  Papers  relating  IL  M.  colonial 
possessions  (London  1872,  seqq.).  —  London  Gazette,  1875.  —  Deutscher  Keichsanzcigcr 
vom  30.  Januar  1875  und  4.  December  1888.  —  Griffith,  Sierra  Leone,  past,  present  and 
future  (London  1881).  —  Journal  Officiel,  28  Mars  1883.  —  Banbury  G.  A.,  Sierra  Leone 
(London  1888).  —  London  Gazette,  15th  January  1886  and  4th  December  1888.  —  La 
McUacoree  et  la  colonic  de  Sien-a  Leone  (Paris  1890).  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  1890, 
15.  Juli.  —  Journal  Ofticiel,  17  Aout  1891.  —  Ingham  E.,  Sierra  Leone  after  a  hundred 
years  (London  1894).  —  Colonial  reports  Nr.  185  and  189.  —  La  main-d'oeuvre  aux 
colonies.  Documents  Ofticiels.  Bruxelles  1897  (Institut  coloniale  internationale).  — Hertdet  E., 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp.  365—384,  388-402,  405—432 
484—530;  II,  pp.  554— 567,  575— 581,  589—591,  596-604,  674—679;  III,  pp.  1048 -1058, 


Parliamentary  Papers  1892,  Nr.  107.  —  TTnited  States'  foreign  IJelations,   1879  se(i(|. 

—  Waiiicennans  II.,  Liberia.  Histoire  de  la  fondation  d'un  Etat  Nigre  Libre  (Bruxelles 
1885).  —  M=  Cants  Steivart  T.,  Liberia  (New- York  1886).  —  Baurzeix  P.,  La  Kepublique 
de  Liberia  (Paris  1887).  —  Dutry,  Liberia,  son  histoire,  sa  constitution  et  ses  ressources  (Gand 
1887).  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungen  1888,  pag.  248.  —  Buttiko/er  J.,  Liberia  (Amsterdam 
1890,  2Bde.).  —  M<^  I'herson  J.  H.  T.,  History  of  Liberia  (Baltimore  1891).  —  CooJc  0. 
Fr.,  Third  Keport  to  the  Board  of  Managers  of  the  New-York  State  Colonisation  Society. 
(New  York  1896).  —  Hertdet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp. 
575—581,  777—786. 


Zoller  11. ,  Das  Togoland  (Stuttgart  18S5).  —  Kuluische  Zeitung  vom  25.  April  1887 

—  Deutsche  WeiCbucher  1881  ft'.  (1.  Februar  1886).  —  Deutscher  Keichsanzeiger  1884  ft".  — 
Danekelmann,  Freiherr  von,  Mittheilungen    aus    den    deutschen    Schutzgebieten   (1888  ff.j. 

—  Deutsche  Kolonialzeitung  1888  ft',  besonders  10.  Juli  1890.  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt 
1889  ff.  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungen,  1890  pag.  194;  1897,  pag.  270  f. 



Bluebook,  C  5905.  —  Burton  B.,  Mission  to  Gelele  king  of  Dahomey  (London 
18G4,  2  Vols.).  —  Les  Colonies  fran^aises  (Paris,  Vol.  VI).  —  Albeca,  A.  L.,  Les  etablissements 
fran9ais  du  golfe  de  Benin  (Paris  1889).  —  Nineteenth  Century,  1890,  October.  —  Revue 
francjaise,  1890,  pag-.  694.  —  Nicolas  W.,  L'Expedition  du  Dahomey  en  1890  (Paris  1892). 

—  Barbou,  Histoire  de  la  guerre  an  Dahomey  (Paris  1893).  —  Dalzel,  The  history  of 
Dahomey  (London  1893).  —  Journal  Ofticiel,  22  Juin  1894.  —  Auhlet  E.,  La  guerre  an 
Dahomey  (Paris  1 8^4,  2  Vols.).  —  Decoeur,  Bulletin  du  Comite  de  I'Afrique  fran^aise, 
1895,  Nr.  7.  —  Fou  E,  Le  Dahomey  (Paris  1895).  —  iV Albeca  A.  L. ,  La  France  au 
Dahomey  (Paris  1895).  —  Toutee,  Dahome,  Niger,  Touareg  (Paris  1897).  —  Hertslet  E., 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896,  3  Vols.),  I,  pp.  247—257;  III,  page  998.  — 
Reichsanzeiger,  19.  October  1897.  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  27.  October  1897. 

C  amerooii. 

Bluebook  1880,  (Slave  Trade)Nr.4.  —Deutsche  WeiBbiicher  1884  ff.  —Bulletin  des  lois 
de  la  EepubliquePran^aise  Nr.  888  (Paris  l^Qb).  —  ReichenoH\  Die  dcutsche  Kolonie  Kame- 
run  (Berlin  1885).  —  National-Zeitung,  15.  Februar  1885.  —  Deutscher  Reichsanzeiger, 
20.  Juni  1885,  August  1886,  10.  Juli  1890.  —  Correspondence  respecting  affaires  in  the 
Cameroons  (London  1885).  —  Danckelmann,  Freiherr  von,  Mittheilungen  aus  den  deutschen 
Schutzgebieten  (Berlin  1888  seqq.).  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  1888  tf.  (besonders  1894, 
Nr.  8).  —  Journal  Ofticiel,  14  Aout  1894.  —  Deutsche  Kolonialzeitung,  1889  ff.  —  Morgen 
C.,  Durch  Kamcrun  von  Slid  nach  Nord  (Leipzig  1893).  —  Passcmje  S.,  Adamaua 
(Berlin  1895).  —  KoscUitzky,  Deutsche  Kolonialgeschichte  (2  Bde.).  —  Zintgraff  £".,  Nord- 
Kamerun  (Berlin  1895).  —  Hertslet  E..  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II, 
pp    596-604,  G 12— 614,  658—662;  III,  pp.  999-1003,   1048—1058. 

French  Congo. 

Parliamentary  Papers  1895,  Nr.  5.  —  Bluebook,  C  4279.  —  Bulletin  des  lois  de  la 
Rt'publique  Fran^aise  Nr.  888  (7  Fevrier  1885).  —  Journal  Officiel,  Fevrier  1885,  28  Avril 
1886,  3  Mai  1891.  —  Compte  rendu  des  seances  de  la  Societe  de  Geographic  de  Paris 
1885—1896.  —  La  Gazette  geographique  1886,  pag.  410.  —  Iradier  M.,  Africa  (Victoria 
1887,2  Vols.).—  Bulletin  Societe  de  Geographic  commercialo  (Paris  1888,  Nr.  7).  —Santos 
e  Silva  J.  E.  dc,  Esbo(,o  historico  do  Congo  e  Loango  nos  tempos  modernos  (Lisboa  1888). 

—  Guiral-Kinckel  d'Hereulais,  Le  Congo  Fran^ais  (Paris  1889).  —  Les  Colonies  fran- 
(;aises  (Paris  1890,  Vol.  VI,  pp.  1—60).  —  Proccs-verbaux  et  rapports  du  Congres  colonial 
national  (Paris  1890).  —  Revue  fran^aise,  1891,  pag.  929.  —  Wagner-Siqmn,  Bevolkcrung 
der  Erde,  VIII.  (Gotha  1892,  pag.  170  ff.).  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  1894,  Nr.  8.  — 
Journal  Officiel,  14  Aout  1894.  —  Mouvement  geographique  1894,  pag.  72;  1891,  pag.  60;  1888, 
pp.  62,  242.  —  Documents  parlamentaires  1894,  28.  Mai,  pp.  843—856.  —  Revue  generale. 
Aout  1804.  '-  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp.  98,  99, 
207—215,  298;  III,  pp.  999,  1059^ 

Tlie  Congo  State. 

Parliamentary  Papers  1894,  Nr.  4,  5,  15.  —  Bluebook,  C  7360,  C  3885.  —  Bulletin 
Officiel  dc  I'Etat  Indcpendant  du  Congo  1887,  pag.  49.  —  Wauters  A  J.,  Les  Beiges  au 
Congo  (Bruxelles  1884).  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungon  1885  pag.  136  tf.  —  Faure  Ch.,  La 
conference  africainc  do  Berlin  (Geneve  1885).  —  Documents  diplomatiques.  Afifaires  du 
Congo  1884—1887.  —  Stanley  H.  M.,  The  Congo  and  the  founding  of  its  Free  State 
(London  1885),  II,  pp.  378—458.  —  Le  Mouvement  geographique  1885—1896  (1888,  pag. 
62;  1890,  pp.  78  et  91.  1891,  pag.  60;  1894,  Nr.  8,  pp.29,  32,71,  74  et  95;   1895,  pp.  26-38, 


49).  -  Moynier  G ,  La  Fouaation  dc  I'Etat  hul.'ponaant  dii  Congo  an  point  do  vuo 
jnridiquo  (Paris  18S7).  —  Banning,  Le  partagc  politiiiue  do  rAfri.iuo  (1888).  —  Du  Fief, 
"lUilletin  Societo  Beige  do  geographio  1890,  pp.  377-467.  -  Docnnents  diplon.ati.inos 
•>  Ser.  1884,  Vol.  XII.  —  bulletin.  Ortlciel.  1888,  pag.  210;  1891,  pag.  213  ;  1894.  pag.  22.— 
Berlin  Act.  2Gtli  l-ebriiarv  1886.  -  Brussels  Act  2nd  July  1890.  -  Wagner-Supan,  Bo- 
volkerungder  Erdo.  Vlll.  "(Uotha  1S92.  pp.  173-178).  -  Le  Congo  iUnstrcS  1893  - 
Livrc  jaunc  189>.  -  Kevno  des  Deux  Mondes.  1895,  pp.  477,  953  -  DroOf/mans  H., 
Le  Congo  (Bruxelles  lf=9o).  —  Cha^aux  A.,  Le  Congo  historiquo,  diplomati^iuc,  physi.iue.  poli- 
tique ot'c.  (Bruxelles  1S94).  —  Frederichs  J..  Manuel  de  g.'ographie  de  TEtat  Lid.'pcndant 
du  Congo  (Bruxelles  1895).  —  Wautds  A.  J,  Bibliographic  du  Congo  1880-1895  (Bruxelles 
1895)  pp.  21—36.  301—309.  —  Pctermami's  Mitthcilungen  1896,  pag.  8S.  —  Ilinde  S. 
L  The  Fall  of  the  Congo  Arabs  (London  1897).  -  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by 
Treaty  (London  189G),  I,  pp.  48-100.  191-240;  III,  pp.  1008-1015,  1017,  1021,  1022, 
1041-1047.    1059  —  100)1. 

British  Islands  in  the  Athmtic  Ocean.  Wali'ish  Bay. 

Colonial  Oftico  List  Nr.  275.  —  Melliss,  St.  Helena  a  physical,  historical  and  toi)0- 
graphical  description  (London  1875).  —  Gill,  Six  month's  residence  on  the  i.sland  of  Ascen- 
sion (London  1878).  —  Brooke,  History  of  St.  Helena.  —  Deutsches  Angra  PcqueHa-WeiU- 
buch,  pag.  45. 

Niger  Coast  Protectorate. 

London  Gazette,  5th  June  1885,  13th  May  1893.  —  Deutsches  WeiCbuch  1888,  VII 
pag.  51.  —  Moclder-Fen-ijman  A.  F.,  Up  the  Niger,  narrative  of  Major  Claude  Macdonald's 
mission  to  the  Niger  and  Benue  etc.  (London  1892).  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa 
by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp.  439—479,  573,  574;  H,  pp.  658—601;  III,  pp.. 972— 975; 
ygl— 984.  —  Diplomatic  and  consular  reports  on  trade  and  finance.  Africa  report  for  the 
vears  1895—1896  of  the  administration  of  the  Niger  Coast  Protectorate  (London  1897). 

Niger  Territories. 

Report  by  Dr.  Baikie  on  the  geographical  position  of  the  countries  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Niger  (London  1863).  —  Boldfs  G.,  Quer  durch  Afrika  (Leipzig  1874,  2  Bde.)- 
—  Thomfson  J.,  Sokoto  (London  1886).  —  London  Gazette,  13th  July  1884,  26th  August  1886 
and  20th  October  1887.  —  Richardson  IL,  Story  of  the  Niger  (London  1888).  —  Bluebook, 
C  5905.  —  Deutsches  Weifibuch  1889,  7. 1h..  —  Monteil,  De  St.  Louis  k  Tripolis  (P^ris  1895).  — 
Annual  reports  of  the  Eivcr  Niger  Company.  —  L'Afritiue  fran(jaise,  1896,  pag.  40.  —  Jtegels- 
perger  G.,  La  France  et  I'Angleterre  sur  le  Niger.  La  liberte  de  la  navigation  du  fleuve 
(Paris  1896).  —  Fillet  A.,  La  Liberte  de  Navigation  du  Niger.  (Paris  1896.)  —  Hertslet  E., 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I.  pp.  439—479;  H,  pp.  658-061;  HI,  pp. 
972—975,  981—984,    1018,  1019. 

Tshad  Lake  Countries. 

Barth  11. ,  Keiscn  und  Entdeckungen  in  Nord-  und  Central-Afrika  (Gotha,  1857  ff. 
5  Bdo.).  —  Rohl/s  G.,  Quer  durch  Afrika  (Leipzig  1874,  2  Bde.).  —  Nachtigal  G.,  Sahara 
und  Sudan  (Berlin  1879  ff.,  3  Bde.).  —  Thomson  J.,  Sokoto  (London  1886).  —  Stuu- 
dinger  J.,  Im  Herzen  der  Haus,sa-Lander  (Ikrlin  1889).  —  Monteil,  Dc  St.  Louis  a  Tripolis 
par  le  lac  Tchad  (Paris  1895).  —  Uohinson  Ch.  II.,  Haussaland  (London  1897). 

Portuguese  West  Africa   (Guinea,  Senegal,  Angola). 

Parliamentary  Papers  1890— 1891,  Nr.  2,  1894,  Nr.  15.  —  Bluebook,  C  5918,  C  6212 
and  C  6370.  —  Cordeiro  L.,    I'ortugal    and  the  Congo  (London  1883).  —   Correspondence 


relative  to  Xegotiations  between  Great  Britain  and  Portugal  for  conclusion  of  the  Congo 
Treaty  1882—1884  (London  1884).  —  Boletin  da  Sociedade  de  Geographia   de  Lisboa  1885 

—  1886,  1887  Nr.  (5  et  8,  1889  pag.  405.  —  La  Gazette  Geographique  1886,  pag.  410.  —  Libr. 
blanc.  1887.  —  Deutscher  Keichsanzeiger,  30.  December  1886  und  1.  Juli  1887.  — 
Petermann's  Mittheilungen  1888,  pag.  248.  —  Bulletin  Societe  de  Geographic  commerciale 
(Bordeaux  1888,  Nr.  4).  —  Santos  e  Silra  de  J.  E.,  Esbo^o  historico  do  Congo  e  Loango  nos 
tempos  modernos  (Lisboa  1888).  —  Carvalho  H.  A.  de,  Expedicao  Portugueza  ao  jMuatianvua 
(Lisboa  1889)-  —  Idem,  O  Lubuco  (Lisboa  1880).  —  Brosselard  II.,  La Guinee  portugaise  et  les 
possessions  fran^aises  voisines  (Lille  1890).  —  Carralho  H.  A.  de,  Lunda  onosEstados  do  Mua- 
tiAnvua  dominio  da  soberania  de  Portugal  (Lisboa  1890).  —  London  Gazette,  26  th  August  1890.  — 
Weale  J.  P.,  The  truth  about  the  Portuguese  in  Africa  (London  1891).  —  Diario  do  governo, 
12.  October  1891.  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  15.  Juli  1890,  1891  pag.  520.  —  London 
Gazette,  15th  May  1891.  —  Diario  22nd  June  1892.  —  Mouvement  geographique  1894,  Nr.  8. 

—  Petermann's  Mittheilungen  1896,  pag.  89.  —  Van  Iseghem  A.,  Les  iles  portugaises  de 
I'Afrique  (Bruxelles  1897).  —  Scottish  Geographical  Magazine,  Yol.  XII,  Nr.  11.  — 
Ilertdet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp.  683-692,  712—747; 
III,  pp.  1004 -101. J. 

German  South  West  Africa. 

Angra  PequeSa  (London  1884).  —  AiTangement  between  Great  Britain  and  Germany 
relative  to  their  respective  Spheres  in  Africa  (London  1885).  —  Deutsches  AVeiCbuch,  Angra 
PequeSa,  1885.  —  Deutscher  Keichsanzeiger,  2.  December  1885,  7.  April  1886,  30.  De- 
cember 1886.  —  Mittheilungen  aus  den  deutschen  Schutzgebieten,  1887  ff.  —  Deutsche 
Kolonialzeitung  von  1888  ab.  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  1889  bis  15.  Juli  1890.  —  Schinz  IL, 
Deutsch  Slidwest-Afrika  (Oldenburg  und  Leipzig  1891).  —  Wagner-Supan,  Bovolkerung  der 
Erde,  VIII,  (Gotha  1892,  pag.  186).  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungen,  1894  pag.  194,  1896 
pag.  88.  —  Dore  K.,  Deutsch-Sildwest-Afrika  (Berlin  1896).  —  Francois  U.  von,  Nama 
und  Damara  (Magdeburg  1896).  —  Hertslet  E ,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896). 
I,  pp.  317—319  :  II,  pp.  608-611.  —  Biilow  F.J.  von^  Drei  Jahre  im  Lande  Ilcndrik  Witboois 
(Berlin  1895,  2.  Auflage  1897). 

Cape  Colony. 

London  Gazette  18th  January  and  15th  April  1806.  -  Chase  J.  C.  and  Wilmoth  A.. 
History  of  the  Colony  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  (London  1870).  —  TroUo2)e  A.,  South 
Africa  (London  1878,  2  Vols.).  —  The  general  directory  and  guidebook  to  the  Cape  of  Good 
Ilojjc  and  its  dependencies  as  well  as  the  Free  State,  Transvaal  and  Natal.  —  Granville, 
Guide  to  South  Africa  (7th  edition,  London  \m\).—  Statham  F.  R,  Blacks,  Boers  and  Britisli 
(London  1882).  ~  Cape  Gazette,  Extraordinary,  25th  March  1885.  —  South  African  books 
on  native  affairs  1885—1896  (Capetown),  —  The  Cape  of  Good  Hope  Govrnment  Gazette 
1885.  —  Parliamentary  „Ueports"  in  „Tho  Times".  —  Colonial  Office's  listes  1885—1896.  — 
Noble,  Official  handbook  History,  productions  and  rcssourccs  of  the  Capo  of  Good  Hope. 
(Capetown,  1886  seqci.).  —  Moodie  D.  C.  F.,  The  history  of  the  battles  of  the  British,  the 
Boers  and  the  Zulus  in  Southern  Africa  (Capetown  1888,  2  Vols.).  —  Gibbs  E.  J.,  England 
and  South  Africa  (London  1889).  —  Journal  Manchester  Geographical  Society  1889,  page  201. 

—  Theul  G.  M.,  History  of  South  Africa  the  republics  and  native  territories  from  1854  to 
U872  (i>ondon  1889).  —  Li'lu  P.,   L'Afriquc  du  Sud.  Histoiro  do  la  colonic  anglaisc  du  Cap 

de  Bonne-Esperance  et  de  scs  annexes  (Paris  1890).  —  London  Gazette,  10th  October  1884  July  1887,  2nd  August  1887,  20th  December  1889,  17th  January  1890,  15th  May  1891. 

—  Bluebook,  C  4588,  C  4194,  C  4263,  C  4590,  C  4643,  G  5022,  C  5143,  C  5331,  C  6524 
C  5918,  C  6217,  C  7962  and  „Reports' .  —  Silver  S.  W.  and  Comp.,  Handbook  to  South 
Africa  (1st  edition  1880,  4th  edition  London  1891).  —  Jw<a's  Map  of  South  Africa,  1  :  2,500.000 
(London  1891).    —    Murraij  li.   W.,  South  Africa    from  Arab    domination    to  British   Jiule 


(London  1S91V  —  Waguer  Siiprtn.  llcvolkcrnng:  dcr  Erdc,  YIII.  (fJotha  1802,  pap-.  197.) 
—  Wori</old  M'.  B.,  ISouth  Africa  (LonJon  18lt5).  —  Noble  J.,  Handbook  III.  off.  of  the 
Capo  Sand  onth  Africa  (Capetown  1896).  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungcn  1896,  pag.  88.  — 
Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1806),  T,  pp.  .^41—302;  II  pp.  672,  673. 


JIoh<b  /;.,  Siobcn  .Tahrc  in  Siid-Afrika  (Wien  1880,  2  Bde.).  —  London  Gazette,  .30th 
.laniiary  188.").  —  ^facl•eu~ie  J.,  Austral- Africa  loosing-  it  or  ruling  it  (London  1887, 
-2  Vols.).  —  r.luebook.  C  4043,  C  4432,  C  4104,  C  4.588,  C  5488,  C  5918  und  C  7962.  — 
JUnitscher  Keichsanzeiger,  9.  Mai  1801.  —  Wagner-Supan,  I'eviilkcrung  der  Erdc,  YIII. 
(Gotha  1802,  pag.  195).  —  HertsUt  £".,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp. 
334—337  :  III,  pp.  090,  001. 

Rhodesia,  British  Zambcsia. 

TojTCS  Ca???/;o5i?.,  Tortugal  0  Inglaterra  en  el  Africa  Austral  (Boletim  da  Sociedad  de 
Geographia  (Madrid  1880,  pag.  333).  _  London  Gazette,  25th  April  1888,  20th  December  1880, 
26th  August  1890,  27th  July  1894.  —  Bluebook,  C  4643,  C  5363,  C  5524,  C  5918,  C  6212, 
C  6370,  C  6G90,  C  7383,  C  7637.  —  Walk}-  H.,  Nyassaland,  Great  Britain's  case  against 
l^ortugal  (London  1890).  —  Proceedings  of  the  Koyal  Geographical  .Society  (London  1890, 
pp.  150,  649).  —  MeUo  C.  de,  Os  Inglcses  na  Africa  Austral  (Lisboa  1890).  —  Siher  S. 
IV.  and  Comp.,  Handbook  to  South  Africa  (London  1891,  pag.  382).  —  Paiva  de  Andrade. 
Manica  (London  1891).  —  Mathers  E.  P.,  Zambesia  (London  1891).  —  Wagner-Supan, 
Bevulkcrung  der  Erde,  VIII.  (Gotha  1892,  pag.  183).  —  Knight  E.  F.,  Khodesia  of  today 
(London  1895)  —  Machado  J.,  0  Territorio  de  Manica  etc.  (Boletin  Sociedade  de  Geographia 
(Lisboa  1895,  pag.  491).  —  Colquhoon  A.,  Matabeleland  (London).  —  Wihnot  A.,  Monomo- 
tapa  (Rhodesia)  (London  1896).  —  Sclous  F.  C,  Sunshine  and  storm  in  Khodesia  (London, 
1896).  —  Ki7ig  J.,  Dr.  Jameson's  Eaid.  Its  causes  and  consequences  (London  1896).  — 
Baden-PoicellR.S.S.,TheMata.hele  Campaign  1896  (London  1897).  — /fer^s?e«  J^.,  The  Map 
of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1806,  3  Vols.)  I,  pp.  174— 100.  Ill,  pp.  987—980,    1037—1040. 

Ilritish  Central  Afi'ica  and  Protectorate  (Nyassaland). 

Bluebook,  C  7504,  C  7611.  —  Scott.  Geographical  Magazine  1888,  Nr.  6,  1889  page 
371.  —  Cordeiro  L ,  La  question  du  Zaire.  Droits  du  Portugal  (Lisbonne  1883.).  — 
Proceedings  of  the  Poyal  Geographical  Society  (London  1890,  page  713).  —  Fort- 
nightly Review^  1890,  page  140.  —  Markus  Ferrao,  La  question  souslevee  entre  I'An- 
gleterre  ct  le  Portugal  (Lisboa  1890).  —  Mello  C.  de,  A  questao  Inglesa  (Lisboa  1 890).  — 
Idem,  Os  Ingleses  na  Africa  Austral  (Lisboa  1800).  —  Cnrvalho  H.  A.  de,  Os  caes  brl- 
tannicos  ou  a  Nyassaland  do  Review  Horace  Waller  (Lisboa  1890).  —  Iteis  J.  B.,  Os  Portu- 
gueses na  regiao  do  Nyassa  (Lisboa  1890).  —  Barros  Gomez  H.  de,  A  questao  do  Zumbo 
(Lisboa  1890).  —  London  Gazette,  15th  May  1891,  24th  February  1893.  —  RanUn,  D.  J., 
The  Zambesi  and  Nyassaland  (London  and  Edinburg  1893).  —  London  Gazette,  22nd 
February  1893.  —  Parliamentary  Papers  1804,  Nr.  6;  1805,  Nr.  2.  —  British  Central 
African  Gazette  1896.  —  Johnston  II.,  British  Central  Africa  (London  1S97).  —  Ilertslct  E., 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1806),  III,  pp.  1025—1028. 

Oi'ange  Republic. 

Vide  Cape  Colony  and  South  African  Republic  —  Bluebook,  C  5238.  —  Jep)pe\s, 
Transvaal  Almanac  and  Directory  (Capetown).  —  Silver  S.  W.  and  Comp.,  Handbook  to 
South  Africa  (London  1891,  pages  431  seqq.)  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty 
(London  1896),  IL  pp.  813—819. 


Basiitolaiid,  Natal,  Ziilulaiid,  Tongolaiul. 

Vide  Cape  Colony.  —  Natal  Bluebooks.  —  Natal  Orclinances.  —  Natal  Almanacs  (Pieter- 
maritzburg).  —  Peace  W.,  Our  Colony  of  Natal  (London  1884).  —  Natal  Official  handbook 
etc.  (London  1886).  —  Chamber  commercial  journal  (London  1888,  page  59).  —  Silrer  S.  W. 
and  Comp.,  Handbook  to  South  Africa  (London  1891,  pages  427  seqq.).  —  Wagner-Supan, 
Bevulkerung  der  Erde,  VIII.  (Gotha  1892,  pag.  1G6).  —  London  Gazette,  7th  March  1893,  .jth 
November  1895.  —  Ihtssel  R.,  Natal  the  land  and  its  story  (Pietermaritzburg  1894).  — 
Precis  of  information  concerning  Zululand  (London  1895).  —  Bluebook,  C  4645,  C  5143, 
C  5143,  C  5331,  C  5622,  C  6200,  C  6201,  C  7393,  C  7395,  C  7780,  C  7878  and  "Keports". 

—  Wagner-Supan,  Bevolkerung  der  Erde,  VIII.,  pag.  197.  —  London  Gazette,  11th  June 
1895.  —  Colonial  reports  Nr.  186.  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungen  1896,  pag.  186.  —  HertsletE., 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp.  329—332,  434—437,  529-536  ;  III. 
pp.  1067,  1068,  1075—1078. 

South  African  Republic  (Transvaal). 

Bluebook,  C  2695,  C  3114,  C  3841,  C  3914,  C  4214,  C  4432,  C  4644,  C  4695, 
C  4980,  C  5331,  C  5892,  C  6200,  C  6217,  C  7611,  C  8308.  —  Schets  Kaart  aantoonende 
de  grcnslynen  in  Zuid  Afrika  etc.  Scale  1:2,85  Mill.  (Pretoria  1869).  —  Wagner- 
Supan,  Bev.-.lkerung  der  Erde,  VIII.,  pag.  190.  —  Silver  S.  W.,  Handbook  to  the 
Transvaal  (London  1877,  page  421).  —  Bluebook  for  Transvaal  Province  (Pretoria  1879).  — 
Transvaal  Govrnment  Gazette  1881  seqq.  —  Nixon  J.,  The  complete  story  of  the  Transvaal 
from  the  "Great  Trek"  to  the  Convention  of  London  (London  1885).  —  Theal  G.  M., 
History  of  the  Boers  in  South  Africa  (London  1887).  —  Jeppe  F.,  Transvaal  Book  Almanac 
for  1887  (Maritzburg  1887).  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  15.  Juli  1890.  —  Fortnightly 
Review  1890,  page  283.  —  Blink  H.,  De  Zuid-Afrikaansche  republiek  en  hare  bewoners 
(Amsterdam  1890).  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungen  1892,  pag.  129.—  Wagner-Supan,  Beviil- 
kerung  der  Erde,  VIII.  (Gotha  1892,  pag.  188).  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungen  1896,  pag.  88. 

—  L'Afrique  Fran^aise  1896,  pag.  361.  —  King  J.,  Dr.  Jameson's  Raid.  Its  causes  and 
consequences  (London  1896).  —  Mermeix,  Le  Transvaal  et  la  Chartered  (2  edition,  Paris  1897). 

—  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp.  704-712,  822—828, 
839—879,   903;  III,  pp.  1029—1036. 

Portuguese  East  Africa. 

Parliamentary  Papers,  1875,  Nr.  1;  1890-1891,  Nr.  2  —  Bluebook,  C6370.  —  Boletin 
Official  1885  seqq.  —  Boletin  da  Sociedade  de  Geographia  de  Lisboa  1885 — 1896,  (1886, 
pag.  495).  —  Documcntos  apresentados  as  Cortes  na  sessao  legisl.  de  1886 — 1896.  (Nc- 
gocios  da  Africa  oriental  e  central.)  —  Deutscher  Reichsanzeiger,  30.  December  1886.  — 
Correspondence  respecting  the  Delagoy  Bay  Railway   (London  1889).    —  Libr.  blanc.   1887. 

—  Carta  da  provincia    de  Mozambique  (Ministro    de  Marinha)  Es.  1:3  Mill.  (Lisboa  1889). 

—  Correspondence  respecting  Portuguese  Claims  in  South  Africa  (London  1890).  —  London 
Gazette,  26th  August  1890.  —  Marcel  G.,  Les  Portugais  dans  I'Afrique  australc  (Paris  18'.)0). 

—  Cazenave  L.  de,  Divisions  politiques  de  la  province  do  Mozambiciue  (Recueil.  consul. 
LXII,  pag.  208).  —  Caj)ello  et  Irens,  Quelques  notes  sur  rotablissement  et  Ics  travaux 
des  Portugais  au  Manomotapa  (Lisboa  1890).  —  D'Andrade  A.,  Reconhecimento  de 
Tcrreno  da  fronteira  do  Transvaal  (Lisboa  1891).  —  Carta  das  po.sscssoes  Portuguezas  da 
Africa   meridional    segundo    as    convcncoos    celebradas  en   1891,    1:6  Mill.    (Lisboa  1891). 

—  Murray    R.  W.,    South    Africa   etc.  (I.  P.,    London    1891).    —    Diario,   22   Jun.  1892. 

—  Wagner-Supan,    Bevulkerung    der     Erde,    VIII.    (Gotha     1892,     pag.    181).  —    Peter- 

Count  Kinsky:  "The  Dii>lomati8t'8  Handbook  for  Africa".  16 


mann's  Mitthcilnngcn  1896,  pag.  80.  —  Naronha  E  de,  LonronQo  Marquos  o  as  suas 
rcla(,«oes  com  a  Africa  do  Sul.  (Lisboa  IfSOG.)  —  Thcal  G.  M..  'riio  rortngueso  in  South 
Africa  (London  1896).  —  Hdlwig  Paul,  Die  Delagoa-Tiai  und  line  Bcdeutung  fiir  den 
llandol  (;ilerlin  1897V  —  Uertslet  E.,  The  Maj)  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp. 
693  —  703,    70:>— 747. 

^lailagtiscar  aii<l  Dependencies. 

Ellin.  History  of  Madagascar  (London  1838,  2  Vols.).  —  Hears,  The  story  of  Mada- 
gascar (New  York  1873).  —  Grandidicr  A.,  Histoire  physique,  natureUc  et  politique  do 
Madagascar  (Paris  1876  seqq.).  —  Treaty  concluded  between  France  and  Madagascar,  8th  August 
1868  (London  1883)  see  also  Parliamentary  Papers  1883,  Nr.  4.  —  Vassiire  P.,  Histoire  de 
jMadagascar  (Paris  1884).  —  Cre»iazy  P.,  Notice  bibliographique  sur  Madagascar  (St.  Denis 
1884).  —  Shaw  G.  H ,  Madagascar  and  France  (London  1885).  —  Saillens  II.,  Nos  droits 
sur  Madgascar  etc.  (Pai-is  1885).  —  The  Antananarivo  Annual  and  Madagascar  Magazine 
IV,  (Antananarivo  and  London  1885  seqq.).  —  Correspondence  respecting  treaty  of  17th 
December  1885  (London  1886)  see  also  Parliamentary  Papers  1886,  Nr.  2.  —  Livro  Jaune 
1886.  —  Guet  J.,  Les  origines  de  I'ile  Bourbon  ct  de  la  colonisation  fran(,'aise  a  Mada- 
gascar (Paris  1888).  —  Le  Chat-tier  H.  et  Pellerin  G.,  Madagascar  depuis  sa  decouverte 
jusqu'a  nos  jours  (Paris  1888).  —  Les  Colonies  francjaises  (Paris  1890,  Vol.  I).  —  Vignols 
L.,  La  France  a  Madagascar   de  1674  a  1750  (Revue   de  geographic   1890,    pp.    292,  360). 

—  Graiididier  A.,  Histoire  do  la  gvographie  de  Madagascar  (2  edition,  Paris  1893).  — 
Martineaii  A.,  iladagascar  en  1894  (Paris  1894).  —  Piolet  J.  B.,  Madagascar  et  les  Hovas 
(Paris  1895).  —  Brunet  L.,  La  France  a  Madagascar  1815—1895  (Paris  1895).  —  Colin 
E.  et  Suan  P.,    Madagascar   et   sa  mission  catholique   (Paris  1895).  —  Livre  jaune    1896. 

—  Renseignements  coloniaux  1896,  pag.  53.  —  L'Afrique  Fran^aise  1896,  pp.  183,  204, 
245.  —  Hanotaux  G.,  L'affaire  de  Madagascar  (Paris  1896).  —  Knigth  E.,  Madagascar  in 
War  Time  (London  1896).  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896), 
n,  pp.  571,  572,    788—800.  —  Le  Journal  Officiel  de  Madagascar  1897. 

Mauritius  and  Dependencies. 

Flemyng,  Mauritius  or  the  Isle  of  France  (London  1862).  —  Bonaparte  R.,  Le  premier 
Etablissement  des  Neerlandais  a  Maurice  (Paris  1890).  —  Leclercq  J.,  Au  pays  de  Paul  et 
Virginie  (Paris  1895).  —  The  Mauritius  Almanac  1885—1896.  —  Brauer  A.  Dr.,  Die 
Seychellen  (Ges.  fiir  Erdkunde,  Berlin,  16.  ,Tuni  1896).  —  The  Geographical  Journal,  1896, 

Reunion  and  Dependencies. 

Drasche-Wartimberg,  Die  Insel  Reunion  (Wien  1877).  —  Gue't  J.,  Les  origines  de 
I'ilc  Bourbon  (Paris  1887).  —  Hue,  La  Reunion  et  Madagascar^ (Paris  1890). 

The  Comoro  Islands. 

Grerey,  Essai  sur  les  Comores  (Pondichery  1870).  —  Genin'J.,  Madagascar,  les  ties 
Comores,  Mayotte  etc.  (Paris  1889).  —  Les  Colonies  fran^aises  (Paris  1890,  Vol.  I).  — 
Armieres,  Dr.,  Les  lies  Comores  (Paris  1890). 


List  of  Orders  in  Council,  1866—1893.  —  New,  Life,  wanderings  and  labours  in 
Eastern  Africa  (London  1873).  —  Correspondences  relating  to  Zanzibar  (London  1886  seqq.). 

—  Deutscher  Reichsanzeiger,  30.  December  1886.  —  Schmidt  K.  W.,  Sansibar  (Leipzig 
1888).  —  Re\-ue  de  geographic  1890,    pag.  297.    —    London  Gazette,    4th  November  1890, 


nth  February  1892,  'ilst  July  1893.  —  Baumaun  0.,  Die  Insel  Zanzibar  (Leipzig  1897). 
—  Idem,  Die  Inisel  Pemba  (Leipzig  1897).  —  Gazette  for  Zanzibar  and  East  Africa, 
20th  January  1897.  —  Mc  Dennoft,  British  East  Africa.  (London  1893),  pp.  264,  268 
seqq.  —  Parliamentary  Papers  1894,  Nr.  1.  —  Bluebook  C  5578,  C  5603.  —  Hertslet  E. 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  II,  pp.  547,  570,  605  -607,  615-622,  750—770, 
925—966,  995  ;  III,   992—994. 

German  East  Africa. 

Die  Lage  in  Afrika  unmittelbar  vor  und  nach  dem  deutsch-englischen  Vertrage  vom 
politischen  Standpunkte  aus  betrachtet  (Dresden  1870).  —  National-Zeitung  1884,  pag.  3012.— 
Denlischrift  liber  die  deutschen  Schutzgebiete  1884—1886  (II,  pag.  44),  und  vom  2.  December 
1885  (III.  pag.  201).  —  Arrangement  between  Great  Britain  and  Germany  relative  to  their 
respective  Spheres  in  Africa  (Loudon  1885).  —  WeiCbiicher  1885  ff.,  besonders  Nr.  56,  VIII, 
XI,  X,  1890  —  1891.  —  Deutschcr  Reichsanzeiger  (1885—1896),  besonders  3.  Milrz  1885; 
30.  November  1886;  21.  Juli  1887;  22.  October  1889;  10.  Juli  1890.  —  Parliamentary  Papers 
1886,  Nr.  1  ;  1887,  Nr.  3;  1890,  Nr.  2.  —  Petermann's  Mittheiluugen  1887,  pp.  58  und  123.  — 
Kolonialpolitische  Correspondenz  vom  26.  Februar  1887.  —  Mittheiluugen  aus  den  deutschen 
Schutzgebieten  1887  secpi-  —  Deutsche  Kolonialzeitung  von  1888  ab.  —  Meinecke,  Kolo- 
niales  Jahrbuch  1888,  pag.  237.  —  Wagner,  Deutsch-Ostafrika  (Berlin  1888).  —  Idem,  Die 
deutsch-ostafrikanische  Kolonie  in  ihrer  Entstehungsgeschichte  etc.  (Berlin  1889).  —  Deutsches 
Kolonialblatt  1889  ff.,  besonders  15.  Juli  1890.  —  Correspondence  respective  Anglo-German 
Agreement  relating  to  Africa  and  Heligoland  (London  1890).  —  Forster  B.,  Deutsch- 
Ostafrika  (Leipzig  1890).  —  Petermann's  Mittheilungen  1890,  pag.  194.  —  Vohsen  E.,  Zum 
deutsch-englischen  Vertrag  (Berlin  1890).  —  Schroeder-Poggeloiv,  Unsere  Afrika-Politik  in 
den  letzten  zwei  Jahren  (Berlin  1890).  —  Wagner- Supan,  Bevolkerung  der  Erde,  VIII. 
(Gotha  1892,  pag.  179).  —  Reichard  P.,  Deutsch-Ostafrika  (Leipzig  1892).  —  Schmidt  R., 
Geschichte  des  Araber-Aufstandes  in  Ostafrika  (Frankfurt  a.  O.  1892).  —  Mc  Dermott  P.  L., 
British  East  Africa  (London  1893),  Appendices.  —  Peters  K.,  Das  deutsch-ostafrikanische 
Schutzgebiet  (Miinchen  und  Leipzig  1895).  —  Stiihlmann  F.,  Mit  Emin  Pascha  etc.  (Berlin 
1897).  _  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp.  303—316;  II, 
pp.  623-627,  630—657,  754-770;   III,  pp.  985,    1024. 

British  East  AMca. 

Diplomatic  and  consular  reports  on  trade  and  tinance  1894.  —  Wilson  C.  T.  and 
Felhin  R.  W.,  Uganda  and  the  Egyptian  Soudan  (London  1882,  2  Vols.).  —  Doutscher 
Kcichsanzeiger,  30.  December  1886.  —  London  Gazette,  7th  September  1888,  4th  and  25th 
November  1890,  22nd  November  1890,  19th  June  1894,  15th  June  1895  and  1st  September 
1896.  —  The  story  of  the  Uganda  Mission  (London  1889).  —  Bluebook,  C  6555,  C  7225, 
Parliamentary  Papers  Africa  Nr.  4(1892),  Nr.  25(1894).  —  Deutsches  Kolonialblatt,  15.  Juli 
1890.  —  S^oc/cS.,  The  story  of  Uganda  and  the  Victoria  Nyanza  Mission  (London  1892).  — 
British  East  Africa  and  Uganda  (London  1892).  —  L'Ouganda  et  les  agissements  de  la 
compagnie  anglaise  "East  Africa"  (I'aris  1892).  —  Bentley  E.,  Handbook  to  the  Uganda 
Question  etc.  (London  1892).  —  Mc  Dermott  P.  L.,  British  East  Africa  or  Ibea.  A  history 
of  the  formation  and  work  of  the  Imperial  British  East  Africa  Company  (London  1893), 
pp.  263,  376.  —  Quaterly  Review  1893  (Uganda).  —  Lugard  F.  D.,  The  Kiso  of  our 
East  African  Impire  (London  1893  2  Vols.).  —  Handbook  of  British  East  Africa,  prepared  in 
Intelligence  Division,  AVar  Oflicc  (I^ondon  1893).  —  L'Ouganda  (Paris  1893.)  —  Ashe  R., 
Chronicles  of  Uganda  (London  1894).  —  CoUille,  Henry,  Sir,  The  Land  of  the  Nile  Springs 
being  chiefly  an  account  of  how  wo  fought  Kabarega.  (Now  York  1895).  —  L'Africiuo 
Fran<;.aiso  1896,  pag.  256.  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896), 
I,  pp!  107-172;  II,  pp.  754—770;    111,  pp.  995-997,   1016,  1017,  1069-1071. 



British  Soinalilaiid  and  Sokoti'a. 

Transactions  15onibay  Geographical  Society  liSiG,  i>a<;e  111 ;  1^50,  ir.\<^o  \2d.  —  L'obiiison, 
Sokotra  (London  1878).  —  licroil  G.,  Yoyag-o  an  Cap  dos  Aromatos  (Paris  1880).  —  Idem, 
La  valli'c  du  Daror  (Paris  1882).  —  ratilUschke  Ph.,  GoogTaphischo  Erforschung  dor  Adal- 
LiUider  etc.  (Leipzig  1884:'.  —  I'roccoding-s  of  the  E.  G.  S.  London,  1885,  October.  — 
Hunter  F.,  llarar  (London  1884).  —  Petermann's  Mitthcilungen  1887,  pag.  32.  —  Colonial 
Ofticc  list,  1801,  page  310.  —  Parliamentary  Papers  1894,  Nr.  1,  17.  —  Keport  on  tlio 
reconnaissance  of  the  Northern  Somaliland  (1801).  —  Sicai/ne  H.  G.  C,  17  trii)S  in  Sonialihind 
(London  1895).  —  Hcrtsht  E.,  The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1890),  II,  pp.  069, 
070,  829,  830—835;    III,  pp.  976—980. 

Froiieli  Possessions  of  the  diulf  of  Aden. 

Journal  Ofliciel,  23  Dccenibro  1880.  —  Bicoijrc  D.  de,  Oboe  (Paris  1883).  — 
Documents  parlamentaires,    Novembre  1885,    pag.  1022.  —  Journal  Ofiiciel,    4  Mars  1886. 

—  Faurof,  Oboe  (Paris  1886).  —  Les  Colonies  franyaises  (Paris  1890,  Vols.  VI,  pp.  241—288). 

—  Salma  L.  de,  Obock  (Paris  1893).  —  Parliamentary  Papers  1894,  Nr.  1.  —  L'Afrique 
Franvaise,  1890,  pag.  188.  —  L  K.  United  Service  I,  pag.  41  (1897),  623-630:  Obock 
etc.  —  Vanderheym,  Q\m\  mois  avoc  le  Negous  Menelic  (Paris  1896).  —  Hertslet  E.,  The 
Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  1,  pp.  269-275;  III,     ]ip.  97G— 980. 

Italian  Possessions  in  North  East  AMea. 

Guillain  M.,  Documents  sur  Thistoire,  la  g\'ographie  et  le  commerce  de  I'Afrique  orien- 
tale  (Paris  1856,  3- Vols.).  —  Provedimenti  per  la  costituzione  e  I'ordinamento  di  una  colonia 
italiaua  in  Assab  (Minist.  d.  a.  tt".  est.  1882,  1886).  —  Possess!  e  protettorati  in  Africa 
(.\nnuario  statistic  italiano),  1885  sccjq.  —  Atti  parlamentari  XVI.,  1886.  —  Documenti  diplo- 
matici  presentati  al  parlamento  italiano  (Libri  verdi,  XIV,  XV,  XVII,  XVIII),  24.  Apriie, 
2.  Maggio  e  9.  Novembre  1888,  17.  Dicembre  1889,  4.  Marzo  1890,  17.  Marzo  1891 
16.  Apriie  1891,  25.  Luglio  1895  e  27.  Apriie  1896.  —  Mc  Dermoit,  P.  L,  British  East  Africa 
(London  1893),  Appendices.  —  Africa  Italiana  (Journal).  —  Austria,  1889,  pag.  506.  — 
Kelazione  annuale  suUa  Colonia  Eritrea.  —  Parliamentary  Papers  1894,  Nr.  17.  —  Bruch- 
hansen  v.,  Die  Italiener  in  Afrika  (Beiheft  zum  Militarischen  Wochenblatt  1895,  pag.  317). 

—  L'Afrique  Franvaise,  1896,  pag.  397.  —  Eritrea:  La  colonia  italiana  in  Africa  e  Francesco 
Crispi,  il  parlamento  ed  il  paese  (Roma  1896).  —  Hertslet  E.,  The  Map  ot  Africa  by  Treaty 
(London  1896),  II,  pji.  605—670,  772-776,  888,  889,  949—960;  III,  pp.  1072-1074. 


Bruce  J.,  Travels  etc.  (Edinburg  1790,  5  Vols.).  —  Salt  H.,  Account  etc.  (London 
1814).  —  Rochet  d'Hericourt  C.  E.  H.,  Voyage  sur  la  cote  orientale  do  la  Mcr  Kouge  (Paris 
1841).  —  Harris  W.  C,  The  highlands  of  Aethiopia  (London  1844,  3  Vols.).  —  Pocket  d'Heri- 
court C.  E.  H.,  Voyage  sur  la  coto  orientale  de  la  Mer  Kouge  (Paris  1848\  —  Bulletin 
de  la  Societe  Khediviale  de  Gcographie  1876,  pag.  351.  —  Pohl/s  G.,  Meine  Mission  etc. 
(Leipzig  1883).  —  Paulitschke  Ph.,  Geographische  Erforschung  der  Adal-Lilnder  etc.  (Leipzig 
1884).  —  Caix  de  Saint-Aymour  de,  La  France  en  Ethiopie  etc.  (Paris  1886).  —  Paulit- 
schke Ph.,  Harar  (Leipzig  1888).   —  Mantegazza  P.,  Da  Massaua  a  Saati  (Milano  1888). 

—  Documenti  diplomatici  presentati  al  parlamento  Italiano  (Libri  verdi),  1890,  pp.  127, 
128,  270,  273,  376,  434;  2.  ser.  pag.  19;  1891,  pag.  101.  —  Costi,  Storia  d'Etiopia  (Milano 
1890).  —  Borelli  J.,  Ethiopie  mi'ridionale  (Paris  1890).  —  Sapeto  G.,  Etiopia  (Roma  1890). 

—  BoUetino  della  Societa  Africana  dTtalia  (Sez.  Napolet.)  1890,  pag.  136.  —  Constantin 
de,  L' Archimandrite  Pa'i'si  et  I'Ataman  AchinofF.  line  expedition  religieuse  en  Abyssinie 
(Paris  1891).  —  Nerazzini,  La  conquista  mussulmana  dell'  Etiopia  nel  secolo  XVI.  (Roma 


1JJ91).  —  Fumagalli  G.,  Bibliografiu  ctiopica  (Milano  1893).  —  Paronelli  F.,  Amba  Alagi 
c  Makale  (Como  189C>)-  —  BobeccJd-Bricchetti  L.,  Nell'  Harrar  (Milano  1896).  —  Hertslet  L\, 
The  Map  of  Africa  by  Treaty  (London  1896),  I,  pp.  1—18.  —  Vigneras  S.,  Una  mission 
fran(;aise  en  Abyssinie  (Paris  1897).  —  D'Abbadie  A.  el  PauUtschke  Ph.,  Foutoukh  cl- 
Habacha  (Paris  1898). 


Berlin  Act  of  26th  February  1885.   —  Bambaud,  La  Erance   coloniale  (Paris   1886). 
—   Convention    between    the    govrnments    of    Great    Britain,     Germany,     Austria-Hungary, 
France,    Italy,    Kussia    and  Turkey    relative    to    the    finance  of  Egypt,    signed    at  London, 
18th  March  1885  (London  1885).  —  Correspondence   respecting    the   proposed  international 
convention  for  securing  the  free  navigation  of  the  Suez  Canal  (London  1888).  —  Petermann's 
Mittheilungen,  1888,   pp.  160  ff.  —  Actes  de  la  conference   de  Bruxelles  1889—1890   et   la 
traite    des   esclaves   en   Afrique.    (Bruxelles  1890,    3  Vols.).   —   Scarsez    de  LocqueneuiUe, 
L'esclavage   ses   promoteurs   et   ses   adversaires.    Notes   et   documents  etc.    (Liege  1890).  — 
Vhilibert  et  Rolland  G.,  La  France  en  Afrique  et  le  Transsaharien  (Paris  1890).  —  Corpo 
di  stato  maggiore  Italiano:    Possedimenti  e  protettorati  Europei  in  Africa  1890  (Roma  1890), 
2.  Edizione.  —  Rolland  G.,   Le  Transsaharien  un  an  apr^s  (Paris  1891).  —  Binger,    Cap., 
Esclavage,  islamisme  et  christianisme  (Paris  1891).  —  Sabatier  C,  Touat,  Sahara  et  Soudan 
(Paris  1891).  —  Fock  A.,  Algerie,  Sahara,  Tchad  etc.  (Paris  1891).  —  Alis  H.,  La  conciuete 
du  Tchad  (Paris  1891).  —  Silca    White  A.,    On  the  comparative   value   of  African  Lands 
(Scott.  Geographical  Magazine,  1891,  page  191).  —  Idem,  The  development  of  Africa  (London 
1890).  —  Rmvson  R.  W.,  The  territorial  partition  of  the  coast  of  Africa  (Proceedings  R  G.  S. 
London,  1884,    pp.  615  —  632).  —  The  Imperial  Institute  yearbook  (London  1892  seqq.).  — 
Wagner-Supan,  Die  Bevolkeruug  der  Erde,  VIII.  Supplement  zu  Petermann's  Mittheilungen 
Nr.  101  (Gotha  1892,   pp.  139—202).  —  Scott  Keltic  J.,   The   partition  of  Africa  (London 
1893).  —  Documents  relatifs  a  la  repression  de  la  traite  des  esclaves  publics   en  execution 
des  articles  LXXXI  et   suivant    de  I'acte   general   de    Bruxelles  1892  (Bruxelles  1893).  — 
Sebillot   A.,   Le    Transafricain    (Paris    1893).   —    Guenin   E.,    Histoire    de    la    colonisation 
franc.aise,   I.  (Paris    1896).   —  Zimmermann   Alfred,   Die   europaischen   Kolonien.    I.  Band. 
Die  Kolonialpolitik  Portugals   und  Spaniens   in  ihrer  Entwickelung   von   den  Anfiingen   bis 
zur   Gegenwart    (Berlin    1896).    —   Fitzner  Rudolf    Deutsches    Kolonialhandbuch.    (Berlin 
1896).  —  Chaudordu  Cte.  de.   Considerations   sur  la  politique  exterieure  et  coloniale  do  la 
France  (Paris  1897).  —  SejJtans,  Les  expeditions  anglaises  en  Afrique  (Paris  1897).  —  Docu- 
ments  officiels.   I.   et  II.  Publication   de  I'Institut  colonial  international  (Bruxelles.  2  serie. 
Paris  1896  et  1897).  —  Meinecke  G.,  Koloniales  Jahrbuch.  Beitrage  und  Mittheilungen  aus 
dcm  Gebiet  der  Kolonialwissenschaft  und  Kolonialpolitik.  9.  Jahrgang  1896  (Berlin  1897).  — 
Das  WeiCbuch.  Theil  XVII.  (Berlin  1897).  —  Lucas  C.  P.,  A  historical  Geography  of  the 
British  Colonies.  Vols.    4:   South  and  East  Africa.   Part  1:    Historical,  with  maps;   Part  2: 
Geographical,  with  maps.  (London  1897.)  —  Eouard  de  Card  E.,  Les  traites  de  protcctorat 
conclus  par  la  France  en  Afrique  1870—1895.   (Paris  1897).  —  Brose  Max,   Die  deutschc 
Kolonialliteratur  von  1884—1895  (Berlin  1897,  Deutsche  Kolonial-GeseUschaft.)  —  Annuaire  dc 
I'anni'e    coloniale    de  1897    (Paris).    —    Institut    colonial    international:    Les    fonctionnaires 
coloniaux  (Paris  1897).    —    Revue    diplomatique    et    coloniale    (Paris  1897).    —    De  Clecq, 
Collection    of  French  Treaties.    —    Chalmers'  Treaties.  —  Martens  Recueil    etc.  —  Janer 
D.  Flor.,  Tratatos  de  Espana.  —  Ilcrtslet's  Treaties.  —  Scott  Keltie's,  Statesman's  Yearbook.  — 
Uertslet  Ed.  Sir,  The  Mai)  of  Africa  by  Treaty.  2nd  edition  3  Vols.  (London  1896.) 


Carte  de  I'Algrrio  (Service  gcographiciuc  de  TArmt'o)  1  :  50.000  (Paris  1884  seqq.). 
—  Perrier,  Carte  do  la  Timisic,  1  :  200.000  (Paris  1884—1886).  —  Monteil-Binger,  Carlo 
des  Etablisscmcnts  Franrais  du  S.'n.'gal  (Paris  1886).  —   Gaidtier,  Carte  de  TAlgc'rie  et  dc 


la  Tiinisio  (Tiivis  1887).  —  .Vov^a'Av/,  Orig-inal  Map  of  South  Africa,  1  :  "2,500.000  (-Ith  Eilition, 
Berlin  188'.»)-  —  -Df  Lattiioy  dc  Jiissi/  IL,  C'arto  do  TAfriiiuc,  1  :  '2,000.000  (Paris  188'.) 
seqq.).  —  Jttta,  Map  of  South  Africa,  1  :  2,500.000  (London  1891).  —  Bavenstein  E.  G., 
A  Map  of  Eastern  Etiuatorial  Africa,  1  :  1,000.000  (London  1882).  —  Hahenicht  H.,  Special- 
karto  von  Afrika,  1  :  4,000.000  (:?.  Edition,  Gotha  1892).  • —  Kie])Crt  E.,  Specialkarte  von 
Deutsch-Siidwestafrika,  1  :  3,000.000  (Berlin  1893).  —  Laiighaiis  P.,  Deutschcr  Kolonial-Atlas 
(Gotha  18941  —  Chuuraml  de  E.,  Carta  dimcstrativa  dolla  Etiopia,  1  :  1,000.000  (Konui 
1S94).  —  Dehes  E.,  Nouvelle  carto  de  TEgypto  ct  scs  di'pendancos,  1  :  3,000.000  (Berlin 
1895).  —  Bingcr,  Carto  du  Haut  IS'igcr  au  golfe  do  Guinec  par  le  i)ays  dc  Kong  et  lo 
Mossl,  1  :  1,000.000  (Paris  1895).  —  Langhans  P.,  Sudwestafrikanisches  Schutzgebiet, 
1  :  2,000.000  (Gotha  1S9G).  —  Wauters  A.  J.,  Carto  de  I'Etat  Indc'pondant  du  Congo, 
Supplement  Mouvement  Geograi)hi(jue,  1  :  2,000.000  (Bruxelles  1896).  —  Kiepert  P.,  Karte 
von  Deutsch-Ostafrika,  1  :  300.000  (Berlui  1895  ft".).  —  Langliuna  Paul,  Schutzgebietc 
Kamerun  und  Togo  in  4  Bliittern  mit  16  Nebeukarten,  1  :  2,000.000.  —  Idem,  Ostafrikanisches 
Schutzgebiet,  1  :  2,000.000  (Gotha  1897).  —  Hansen,  Congo  fram/ais,  publii'c  par  le  service 
gi'ographique  des  colonies  1  :  1,500.000  (Paris  1895).  —  Wandkarte  von  Deutsch-Ostafrika. 
Kedigiert  von  Dr.  Richard  Kiepert.  6  Blatter.  1  :  1,000.000  (Berlin).  —  Flotte  de 
Poquecairc  R.  de,  Carte  du  Maroc  k  rechello  du  1,000.000«  avec  notice  et  index  biblio- 
graphique  (Paris  1897).  —  Vuillot,  P.,  Soudan  fran(;ais  ct  cute  occidentale  d'Afri(jue, 
1  :  4,000.000  (Paris  1897).  —  Berghaus',  Stielei^'s,  Kiepert's,  Vidal  de  la  Blache's,  W.  und 
A.  K.  Johnston's  Atlas. 

GeooTaphical   Regi ster. 

(The  Figures  refer  to  the  nnniber  of  the  Page.) 


Abaj  97. 

Abasuen  89,  91. 

Abba  Garima  9G. 

'Abd  el-Kury  90. 

Abeokiitta  31,  35. 

Abyssinia  93,  97. 

Abome  (Abomey)  .35.  37. 

Abu  Klea  7. 

Accra  30  f. 

Adamawa  (Adamaua)  40,  43. 

Adda  30. 

Addifuha  91. 

Addis  ababa  100. 

Addo  35. 

Adel  98. 

Adeli  34. 

Aden  90. 

Adrar  19. 

Adua  96. 

Aegenni  37. 

'Afar  91,  92. 

Afrikijja  10. 

Agaishe  36. 

Agordat  7. 

Ague  35  f. 

Ain  Salah  15. 

Ajada  35. 

Ajuda  35,  36. 

Akim  30. 

Akwama  30. 

Albert-Edward  Lake  87. 

Albert-Nyanza  50,  87. 

Albreda  29. 

Aldabra-Islands  82. 

Alexandria  2. 

Alfred  County  70. 

Algiers  12,  42. 

Alhucemas  18. 

Alina  17,  47. 
Allada  35,  3G. 
Ama  Kossa  61. 
Amaoful  31. 
Amatongo  72. 
Ambabo  91. 
Ambas  Bay  45. 
Amboella  55. 
Amboland  50. 
Ambriz  52,  54. 
Amhura  97,  98. 
Amirantes  80. 
Anamaboe  30. 
Aneho  34. 

Angola  52,  54,  55,  65. 
Ankori  87. 
Annobon  45. 
Antananarivo  79. 
Antotto  99. 
Appollonia  30. 
Ardra  36. 
Arguin  18,  21. 
Aribinda  24. 
Aroangva  65,  68. 
Aroossi  97. 
Arussi-Galla  94. 
Asaba  41. 
Ashanti  31. 
Ascension  56. 
Asdscher  7. 
Asgar  7. 
Asmara  96. 
Assab  93,  94,  95. 
Assinie  21,  26,  27. 
Assinie  River  25. 
Assumption  80,  82. 
Astove  82. 
Atbara  93. 
Audsbila  8. 
Aussa  94,  95. 
Avon  Lagoon  34. 

Axim  30. 

Azores  20. 


Bachunu  24. 

Badagry  31. 

Bating  23. 

Bagliirmi  8,  41. 

Bahia  del  Oeste  18. 

Bahr  el-arab  6. 

Bahr  el-azraq  87. 

Bahr  el-ghasfil  6,  53. 

Bamaliti  61. 

Bambara  24. 

Bambuk  24. 

Bangweolo  Lake  50,  69. 

Bardera  94. 

Barka  8,  93. 

Barolong  61. 

Barotse  54,  55,  68. 

Barrana  (Barrawa)  21,  39. 

Barua  (Baruwa)  21,  39. 

Bas  de  cote  25. 

Bassam  24. 

Bassas  de  India  79. 

Basutoland  61,  62,  70. 

Batanga  44. 

Batete  22. 

Bathurst  29. 

B.  C.  A.  67. 

Bechuanaland  Protectorate 

60,  61,  63. 
Becquah  31. 
Begemeder  97. 
Beira  77. 

Beled  cl-dsherid  10. 
Beled  es-Sudan  5. 
Beledugu  26. 
Benadir  93,  96. 
Bender  Ziada  89,  94. 
Benghasi  8. 


Bengnclla  ai.  5.'). 

Beui  Amor  iU.  "Jo. 

Beni  Mzab  11. 

Renin  ii.'i.  37. 

Bonno  iV.),  -i:?. 

Berber  4. 

Berbera  SKI 

Betsileos  78. 

Betsiuiisarakas  78. 

Biafara  43. 

BiokabOba     (Bia  KabOiba) 
89,  ni,  94. 

Bisniarckburg  34. 

Bissagos  28. 

Bh'mco,  Cape  18. 

Blantyre  69. 

Bloemfontein  73. 

Bodelu  8. 

Bogos  territories  6. 

Bogos  99. 

Bojador  Cape  18. 

BolAma  28. 

Boma  54. 

Bon,  Cape  10. 

Bondii  24. 

Boratsile  6L 

Borgu  32,  40. 

Borku  8. 

Bornu  9,  39,  41. 

Brass  River  37. 

Brava  83,  84,  96. 

Britisli  Bechuanaland  59. 

British  Central   Africa  65. 

British    Central  Africa  Pro- 
tectorate 69. 

British  East  Africa  86. 

British  Kaffraria  62. 

British  Somaliland  89. 

British    South  Africa    Com- 
pany 65. 

Brothers  Islands  90. 

Bulam  28. 

Balawayo  67. 

Bumtu  21. 

Buseima  8. 

Bossang  40. 

Cabinda  47,  54. 
Cacheo  26,  27. 
Cairo  2,  5. 

Calabar  43,  41. 

Cama  52. 

Cameroon  37,  43. 

Campo  River  43,  45. 

Canary  Islands  19,  20. 

Capo  Blanco  18. 

Cape  Coast  Castle  30. 

Cape  Colony  59,  70. 

Capo  Corrientes  82. 

Cape  Delgado  76. 

Capo  Frio  59. 

Cape  Guardafui  94. 

Cape  Mount  29. 

Cape  Palmas  25,  32. 

Cape  of  Good  Hope  59. 

Cape  Verde  Islands  20. 

Capetown  61,  63. 

Carabane  26. 

Cargados  80. 

Casamanza  25. 

Cassini  27. 

Catak  27. 

Cayor  22  f. 

Cerf  82. 

Cette  52. 

Ceuta  17,  18. 

Chafarimas  Islands  1(S. 

Chagos  Islands  80. 

Chinde  69. 

Chiuta  Lake  67. 

Chiwanga  68. 

Chor  Gash  93. 

Cidade  de  Praya  20. 

Combia  27. 

Combo  29. 

Comores  81. 

Compony  26,  27. 

Conakry  27. 

Congo  47,  51,  54. 

Congo  fran^ais  46. 

Congo  State  49. 

Constantino  12. 

Coomassi  31. 

Corisco  45. 

Cosmoledo  80,  82. 

Cute  fran^aise  des  Sonialis  91 . 

Crepi  30. 

Croboe  30. 

Crocodile  River  74. 

Cross  River  38. 

Cubango  54,  57. 

Cuneno  54,  57. 

Cyrenaika  8. 


Dabi'i  26. 

Dakhel  1. 

Dagoinba  34. 

Dahlak-Archipelago  94. 

Dahomey  27,  33,  35. 

Dakar  21. 

Damaraland  57,  58. 

Danierghu  13. 

Damietta  2. 

Danfdvil  91,  94,  95. 

Dar  Banda  6. 

Dar  es-salam  86. 

Dfir  Fertit  6,  47. 

Dfir  Fflr  1,  3,  9,  42,  47,  87. 

Davali  89,  91. 

Debbeh  1. 

Delta  2. 

Denkera  30. 

Desertas  20. 

Diankolo  River  21. 

Diego  Garcia  80. 

Diego  Suarez  79. 

Dilolo-Lake  50. 

Dixcove  30. 

Djimma  97,  98. 

Djogue  26. 

Dogali  95,  99. 

Dolbohanta  90. 

Dongola  1,  5. 

Draa  15. 

Dshalo  8. 

Dsharabub  1,  8. 

Dshezirah  6. 

Dshezira  Soba  91. 

Dshibuti  91. 

Dshildessa  89,  91. 

Dsholi  16. 

Dshub-(Juba-)River  83,  94. 

Dsitambo's  Village  69. 

Dullul  91. 

Dumejra  91. 


Eagle  Islands  80. 

East  Africa  Protectorate  86. 

East-Griqualand  60. 

Ederi  7. 

Egba  32. 

Egypt  1. 

Ejssa-Somali  90. 

El  Arish  2. 


El  Biban  7,  10. 

El  Gada  15. 

El  Gharb  14. 

El  Golea  12. 

El  Habasha  97. 

El  Obeid  4,  6. 

El  Sa'id  2. 

El  Teb  4,  6,  7. 

Elephant  Islands  29. 

Elmina  ^-^0 

Eloby  45. 

Emin  Pasha's  Province  50. 

Ennedi  8. 
Ennerea  98. 
Erer  97. 
Erg  7. 

Eritrea  93.  96. 
Essaman  31. 
Eshowe  72. 

Estado  d'Africa  Oriental  78. 
Etembue  43. 
Ethiope  Rapids  43. 
Ethiopia  97. 
Europa  79. 


Faleme  21. 

B^alkat  River  93. 

Fanti  31. 

Farafrah  1. 

Farquhar  82 

Fas  (Fes)  15,  17. 

Fellatah  40. 

Fernando  P6  45,  46 

Fezzan  7,  9. 

Fetishtown  44 

Figig  1.5. 

Forcados  37. 

Fort  Rosebery  69. 

Foulepointe  78, 

Frao  River  39,  43. 

Freetown  30. 

French  Congo  46. 

French  Guinea  25. 

French  Soudan  21,  23. 

Friedrichsbnrg  (Gross-)  34. 

Fuladugu  24. 

Fulbe  (Fellatah),  Dominion 

of  .39. 
Funchal  20. 
Futa  Dshallon  22,  24. 
Futa  Toro  24. 


Gaboon  45,  47. 

Gadaburssi  89,  94. 

Galega  82. 

Galla  87,  94,  97. 

Gambia  21,29. 

Gambia  River  29. 

Gana  37. 

Gando  34,  39,  40. 

Gangella  54,  55. 

Gangomme  22. 

Garayos  82. 

Gasaland  76. 

Geba  27. 

Georgetown  29,  56. 

German  East  Africa  84. 

German  South  West  Africa 

Ghadames  7,  10,  12. 

Ghat  7,  9. 

Glehue  35. 

Glorioso-Islands  78. 

Godsham  97. 

Gold  Coast  Colony  30. 

Gold  Coast  21,  25. 

Goorage  97. 

Goorma  (Gurma)  24,  30,  34. 

Goosen  64. 

Goree  21. 

Gough's  Island  56. 

Grand  Bassa  33. 

Grand  Bassam  25. 

Grand  Lahou  25. 

Grand  Popo  35,  36. 

Great-Comoro  81. 

Great  Fish  River  61. 

Great-Windhoek  59. 

Griqualand  60. 

Gross  Friedrichsburg  34. 

Gubat  7. 

Gubet  Kharaib  91. 

Gudru  97. 

Guimbering  26. 

Guinea  Portuguese  21. 

Guinee  Frangaise  25. 

Gura  98. 

Gurara  13. 

Gurma  24,  30,  34. 

Guro  13. 


Habab  94,  95. 
Habr  Audi  90. 

Count  KiDHky:  "The  Diplomatist's  Handl)ook  for  Africa". 

Habr  Gerhadji  90. 
Habr  Toldshalej  90. 
Hadu  94. 
Handub  7. 
Harar  3,  91,  97. 
Haut  Ubangi  42. 
Ha  wash  91. 
Hawija  94. 
Hickorytown  44. 
Hombonu  36. 
Hovas  78. 
Humbe  54,  58. 

Ibadan  32. 

I.  B.  E.  A.  86. 

Ibo  76. 

Ida  37. 

Ifni  18. 

Ilhas  do  Cabo  Verde  20. 

Imperial  British  East  Africa 

Inaccessible  56. 
Ingogo  74. 
Inhambane  76. 
Insalah  (Ain  Salah)  13,  15. 
Iramba  85. 
Isandula  62. 
Isa-Somal  (Siehe  Ejssa.) 
Iskobio  31, 
Isle  de  Bourbon  80 
Isle  de  France  86. 
Ismailia  2. 

Isola  do  principe  46. 
Itala  96. 
Itjopja  97. 
Ivory  Coast  21,  25. 

Jackville  25. 
Jamestown  57. 
Jatenga  24. 
Jebu  (Yebu)  32. 
Johanna  (Comorcs)  81. 
Johannesburg  75. 
Jola  (Yola)  38,  43. 
Jorubaland  (Yorubai  35. 
Juan  de  Nova  79. 
Juba  Factory  49,  54,  96. 
Juba-(Dshub-)River  83. 
Juby  Cape  14,  15,  16. 



Kaarta  24. 
Kaba  26 

KabUai  26. 

Kabouipo  68. 

Kaffa  97. 

Kaha  98. 

Kana  36,  37. 

Kanem  8,  41. 

Kaokoland  58. 

Karagwe  85. 

Karonga  84. 

Kasar  Kas  1,  93. 

Kasbgil  4,  6. 

Kasongo  51. 

Kassai  51,  52,  54. 

Kassala  7,  93,  95. 

Katanga  50,  51. 

Katima-Falls  58,  68. 

Kawar  8. 

Kawende  85. 

Kawirondo  84,  87. 

Kayes  21,  25. 

Kazembe's  Dominion  68. 

Kebabo  8. 

Kelraina  37. 

Kemi  1. 

Kenatsa  15. 

Keren  95,  96. 

Kerguelen  81. 

Khartoum  4,  7. 

Khatete  22. 

Kibwezi  89. 

Kilima  Ndsharo  84. 

Kilwa  Lake  67. 

Kionga  Bay  76.  87. 

Kipini  83. 

Kismayu  83. 

Klein-Povo  (Popo)  34. 

Koba  27. 

Kobe  7. 

Koki  87. 

Konde  85. 

Kong  24,  26. 

Kordofan  1,  4,  6,  9,  87. 

Kosi  Bay  76. 

Kosseir  2. 

Kotonu  36,  37. 

Kribi  44. 

Krikor  30. 

Kuango  51. 

Kufra  8. 

Kuilii  46,  47,  51. 
Kuka  (Kukaua)  9,  39,  41. 
Kumassi  (Coomassi)   31. 
Kuria  Muria  90. 


La  Calle  10. 

Lado  6,  50. 

Laghuat  14. 

Lagos  31,  32,  37. 

Laing's  Neck  74. 

Lame  43. 

Larau  83. 

LaurenQo  Marquez  76,  77. 

Lavadu  89 

Lekke  31. 

Les  Freres  91. 

Liberia  23,  24,  32  f. 

Libreville  48. 

Licona  52. 

Likuala  47. 

Limpopo  73. 

Little  Adra  36. 

Little  Povo  (Popo)  34. 

Loanda  54,  55. 

Loango  48,  54. 

Loangwa  65,  68. 

Loge  52. 

Logone  43. 

Lokodja  41. 

Lolodorf  44. 

Lome  33,  35. 

Los  Islands  25. 

Lovadu  91. 

Luapula  50,  69. 

Liideritzland  58. 

Lunda  53,  55. 

Lunti  66. 


Mac  Carthy-Island  29. 
Madagascar  78. 
Madeira  20. 
Mafeking  61. 
Mafia  84,  85. 
Magdala  98. 
Maghrib  el-aqsa  14. 
Mahdi,  Dominion  of  5. 
Mahdijja  5. 
Mahe  80. 
Mahis  35. 

Majo  Kcbu  43 

Majiiba  74. 

Maklutji  66. 

Manda  83,  88. 

Mandinka  24,  32. 

Manica-Plateau  66,  67,  77. 

Manjanga  47. 

Mao  41. 

Maputa  River  71. 

Maqdishu  83,  84. 

Marar  94. 

Marea  94,  95. 

Mareb  93. 

Marocco  97. 

Maryland  33. 

Mashonaland  66,  75. 

Maseru  70. 

Massabi  47,  54. 

Massai  87. 

Massenja  42. 

Massina  24. 

Massowah  94,  95. 

Matabeleland  63,  66,  75. 

Matam  21. 

Mauritius  80. 

Mayo  Kebbi  42,  44. 

Mayotta  81. 

Mazoe  River  65. 

Mbomu  47. 

M'buzimi  85. 

Melilla  18. 

Melindi  88. 

Mellacoree  26. 

Mendif  44. 

Mengo  89. 

Merlikesh  15. 

Meravk^i  1,  5. 

Merihan  94. 

Merka  83,  84,  96. 

Meru  Lake  50,  69. 

Mesurado  33. 

Mfumbiro  84. 

Midshurtin  94,  96. 

Milmil  89. 

Misahohe  34. 

Misr  1. 

Misr-el-bahri  2. 

Mkusi  72. 

Mogador  16,  18. 

Mohilla  81. 

Molopo  60,  63. 

Mombasa  82,  87,  89. 

Monrovia  33. 


Morocco  14. 

Mosilekatze  62. 

Mossamedes  54,  55. 

Mossi  (Musbi)  24,  30. 

Mozambique  56,  76. 

M'Pall  22. 

Mpaslii  54,  58 

Mpororo  87. 

Mrima  83. 

M'Sinje  67. 

Muata  Jam  wo  (Yam  wo)  55. 

Mulfija  River  14,  15. 

Muni  45. 

Murzuq  9 

Musarda  33. 

Musha  Islands  91,  92. 

Mushi  (Mossi)  24,  30. 


Namaland  57. 

Namaqualand  50. 

Naronga  68. 

Natal  62,  70 

Ndara  bi,  58. 

N'Diandor  22. 

Ndoruma's  Capital  47. 

New-Amsterdam  81. 

New  Republic  (Zululand)  74 

Ngala  43. 

Ngolgol  22. 

Nguru  83. 

Niam-Niam  47,  87. 

Niari  46. 

Niger  Coast  Protectorate  37 

Niger-River  13,  38. 

Niger  Territories  38 

Nightingale  Islands  56. 

Nile  50. 

Nokki  51. 

Nosob  60. 

Nossi-Be  78,  79 

Nubia  1,  6. 

Nun  Cape  15. 

Nun,  Mouth  of  37. 

Nuilez  River  25. 

Nyassa  67,  68,  76. 

Nyassaland  66,  69. 


■Obbia  94,  96. 
Obock  91,  92. 
Ogaden  94. 

Ogbomotsho  (Obomotsho)  32, 

Ogowe  46,  47,  48,  52. 
Oil  Islands  80. 
Oil  river  37. 
Okavango  58,  63. 
Omderman  (Omdurman)  7,9. 
Oran  12. 
Orango  28. 

Orange-Republic  60,  70,  72 
Orange  River  57,  65,  70,  71. 
Oratsghi  37. 
Ordashu  31. 
Ossimi  23. 
Ozi  83,  88. 

Palachwe  64. 
Pangani  88. 
Pankoy  22. 
Patta  83,  88. 
Pemba  82,  86,  88. 
Penon  de  Velez  18. 
Pietermaritzburg  71. 
Pondoland  60,  63,  70. 
Ponta  Delgada  20. 

Port  Alice  89. 
Port  Louis  80. 

Port  Sa'id  2. 

Porto  Novo  35,  36,  37. 
Porto  Santo  20. 

Porto  Seguro  36. 

Portuguese  East  Africa  77. 

Portuguese  Guinea  27. 

Portuguese  Lower  Guinea 

Possession  Island  57. 

Povo  grande  49. 

Praslin  80. 

Presidios  17. 

Pretoria  74,  75. 

Princes  Island  46. 

Providence  82. 

Punta  Barra  29. 


Qasr  es-Sa'id  11. 
Quiliraane  76. 
Quitta  30. 


Rahanwin  94. 
Rabat  93. 

Raheita  91,  95. 

Ramaquaban  66. 

Ras  'All  91,  92. 

Ras  Dshibuti  91,  92,  93. 

Ras  Dumejra  91,  92. 

Ras  el-Kunais  8. 

Ras  Kasar  93. 

Ras  Tadjer. 

Reunion  81. 

Rhodesia  65,  77. 

Rif  15. 

Rio  Cassini  27. 

Rio  del  Rey  38,  43. 

Rio  d'oro  13,  15,  17. 

Rio  Nuiiez  26. 

Rivieres  du  Sud  21,  23,  25, 

Robert's-Port  32. 
Rode  Valley  60. 
Rodriguez  80. 
Rosebery  69. 
Rosetta  2. 
Roux  Cape  10. 
Rovuma    River    67,   76,   83. 
Royal  Niger  Company  38. 
Ruanda  85,  87. 
Rudolf  Lake  97. 
Rufisque  21. 
Ruo  68. 

Saadani  85. 
Sabi  66. 
Sagallo  91,  99. 
Sahara  10,  12. 
Sakalavas  78. 
Sakota  97. 
Salaga  34. 
Saldanha  Bay  61. 
Saleh  16. 
Salisbury  67,  77. 
Salum  21. 

Samory's  Dominion  22. 
Sanga  River  42,  44,  47. 
San  Giacomo  29. 
San  Juan  45. 
San  Pietro  River  26. 
Sansane-Mangu  37. 
Sansandig  21. 
Santa  Clara  Cape  46. 
Santa  Cruz  do  Mar  Pequena 

Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife  19. 


Santa  Lucia  Bay  71. 

Santa  Maria  20. 

Siio  Louieni,'0  78. 

Sao  Mignol  20. 

Sao  Paolo  de  Loanda  55. 

Sao  Thiaiio  20. 

Sao  Thoni^  46. 

Savi  (Xavier)  36. 

Say  13,  21,  39. 

Scarries  25. 

Sebbe  35. 

Secomdi  30. 

Sedhiu  26. 

Sefui  30. 

Segu  Sikoro  21. 

Sella  8. 

Semien  97. 

Semio's  Capital  47. 

Semliki  River  87,  88. 

Semsen  93. 

Senegal  21. 

Senegambia  21. 

Senna  76. 

Sennaar  1,  6. 

Seychelles  80. 

Shari  42,  44. 

Shashi-River  66. 

Sherbro  Island  29 

Shire  68. 

Shea  91,  92,  94,  97,  98. 

Shoshong  64. 

Shotts  12. 

Shott  el-dsherid  10. 

Shott  el-Gharbi  11. 

Sidama  97,  98. 

Sidshilmessa  15. 

Sierra  Leone  21,  29. 

Sinai  Peninsula  2. 

Sinu  33. 

Slave  Coast  31. 

Snussija  1. 

Sofala  76. 

Sokna  8. 

Sokoto  23,  39. 

Sokotra  89. 

Solum  1. 

Somali  2,  87,  89,  91. 
Somalia  Italiana  93. 
South  African  Republic 

73,  75. 
St.  Brandon  80, 
St.  Denis  81. 
St.  Helena  57. 


St.  Louis  21,  24. 

St.  Marie  78,  79. 

St.  Mary  of  Bat  hurst  29. 

St.  Paul  81. 

St.   Pierre  82. 

St.  Piotro  River  25.  32. 

Slefanie  Lake  97. 

Stellaland  64. 

SuAkin  2 

Soudan  (Sudan)  1,  2,  5. 

Sudan,  Central  41. 

Suez  2. 

Suez  Canal  2. 

Sumbo  76. 

Sus  15. 

Swasiland  71,  74. 

Sweet  River  31. 

Tadshura  91,  92. 

Tafilelt  15. 

Taiserbo  8. 

Taka  1,  6. 

Takale  6. 

Tamaneb  6 

Tamarida  91. 

Tamatave  78,  79. 

Tana  River  83 

Tanganyika  50,  68,  69. 

Tangiers  16 

Tarabulus  7. 

Tati  Gold  District  66. 

Tazzerult  15. 

Tchertcher  97. 

Tebessa  10. 

Tegeri  8. 

Tel  el-kebir  4. 

Temaneb  7. 

Tembuland  60. 

Tete  76. 

Tetuan  16. 

Tibati's  Dominion  44. 

Tibesti  8. 

Tidikelt  13. 

Tieba's  Dominion  24. 

Tigre  95,  97. 

Timbuctoo  23. 

Todshie  34,  35. 

Togo  34. 

Togoland  33. 

Tokar  7. 

Tombo  27. 

Tongoland  71. 

Tongola  River  71. 

Transkei  60. 

Transvaal  62,  67,  73. 

Trarza  23. 

Tripolis  (Tripoli)  7. 

Tristan  da  Cunha  56. 

Tristao  27, 

Trois  Freres-Islands  80. 

Tromelin  82. 

Tshad  Lake  Countries  41. 

Tshagos-Islands  80. 

Tshambesi  69. 

Tshantyoan  34. 

Tshinde  69. 

Tshiioango  47. 

Tshobe-River  2,  58.  63.  65. 

Tu  8. 

Tuareg  7. 

Tuat  13,  15. 

Tugela  70. 

Tuggurt  14. 

Tunghi  63. 

Tunis  10. 


Uano  92. 

Dbangi  9,  47,  49,  52. 

Uelle  52. 

Uganda  86,  87,  88. 

Uhehe  85. 

Ukami  83. 

Ukerewe  85. 

Ulala  25,  51. 

Uled  Embarek  19,  24. 

Ulundi  62. 

Umba  River  83,  88. 

Umsalekaze  62. 

Uniamwesi  85. 

Unioro  (Dnyoro)  87. 

Upingtonia  50,  59. 

Urua  25,  51. 

Usagara  83,  85. 

Usambara  85. 

Useguha  83. 

Usige  84. 

Usoga  87. 

Usukuraa  85. 

Dsutu  River  71. 

Dtshali  93. 



Vaal  62,  71. 
Vassao  30. 

Velez  de  la  Gomera  18. 
Victoria  (Cameroon)  45. 
Victoria  Nyanza  84,  85,  89. 
Victoria  Republic  71. 
Volia  21,  30,  34,  35. 
Vryheid  63,  74. 


Wadai  5,  8,  41. 
Wadi  Draa  15. 
Wadi  Nogal  89. 
Wadi  Suf  14. 
Wadi  Sus  15. 
Wadis  River  15. 
Wad  Ras  18. 

Wagadugu  25,  34,  37. 

Wahadu  89. 

Walfish  Bay  56,  59. 

Wallamo  97. 

Wanga  86. 

Wanjanga  8. 

Wargla  12,  14. 

Warsheik  83,  84,  96. 

War  Singeli  90. 

Webi  Shebeli  97. 

Wesiln  17. 

West  African  Colonies  28 

West  African  Settlements  28 

West  Griqualand  60,  62 

Whydah  (Weyda,  Uida)35,  36 

Windhoek  59. 

Winnebac  30. 

Witu  83,  86 

Wizard  82. 

Wurno  40. 


Xavier  (Savi)  36. 
Xesibe  60. 

Yetzoo  91. 

Yola  aola)  38,  43. 

Yoruba  (Joniba)  31,  35. 


Zambesi  52,  58,  63,  69. 
Zambesia  65. 
Zanzibar  82 
Zejla  (Zeyla)  89,  92. 
Ziquincior  27. 
Zomba  69. 
Zululand  70,  71,  74. 
Zumbo  65. 



t  a    corn 







)  I4th,  28th,  31st  (11th)  Portugese 












18fi2,  March 


1861,  August  6th. 











since  i879 

12th  March  1878. 




22nd  February  1878 








1875,  24th  July. 















June  1 9th 

August  27th 









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Tedil-,  Hausa-,  Fulfulde-,  Sonjai-,  Logone-,  Wandala-,  Bagrimma-,  and 
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BLEEK    (W.   H.   T.,   pii.d.).      A   Comparative  Grammar  of  South  African 
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CECCHI  (A.).  Da  Zeila  alle  frontiere  del  Cafla.  Vol.  III.  636  pp.  8vo. 
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Vocaboli  e  modi  di  dire  della  lingua  Afar ;  pp.  491-501,  A.  Cecchi,  Novelle 
raccolte  in  lingua  Italiana. 

CLARKE  (J. ).  Specimens  of  Dialects.  Short  Vocabularies  of  [246]  Languages 
and  Notes  of  Countries  and  Customs  in  Africa.  8vo.  pp.  v.  and  104. 
1849,     3s. 

CUST  (R.  N.).  Les  langues  de  I'Afrique,  traduit  de  I'anglais  par  L.  de 
Milloue.  pp.  126,  small  8vo.  paper  covers.  "  Bibliotheque  elzcvirienne." 
1885.     2.S.  M. 

A  Sketch  of  the  Modern    Languages  of  Africa,  accompanied  by  a 

Language   Map,    by   E.    E.    Ravenstein.      2   vols.      Post   8vo.    cloth,   pp. 
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Essay  on  the  Progress  of  African  Philology  uj)  to  the  year  1893. 

48  pp.   8vo.     1893.     Is.  M. 
FAIDHERBE,  Langues  senegalaises :  wolof,  arabe,  hassania,  soninki'',  serere  : 
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Ksolavos.     VIII.  Id.  ties  dialectes  de  rAIVitjuc  contiale. 
GHEYN  (J.  van  don).     La  langue  rongalaise  et  les  idionies  bantous  d'ajJii'S  le 

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JACOTTET    (E.).      Etudes    sur    les    langues    du    Haute -Zambeze,    Testes 

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Vol.  I.     Grammaire  soubiya  et  louye.     xxxvii.  and  133  pp.  8vo.     1896.     6s. 

JOHNSON  (H.)  and  CHRISTALLER  (J.).     Vocabularies  of  the  Niger  and 

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Includes  Yoruba,  Nupi,  Kakanda,  Igbira,  Igara,  Ibo,  Ga  and  Obutu. 
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African  Languages.     Folio,  cloth,  pp.  24  and  188.     1854.     £1  Is. 
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principles   of  word -comparison.      With   tables   illustrating   the   primitive 

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KRAPF    (J.    L.).      Vocabulary   of   Six   East -African   Languages   (Kienaheli, 

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LAST  (J.  T.).     Polyglotta  Africana  Orientalis  ;   or,  a  Comparative  Collection 

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SCHLEICHER  (A.  W.).  Afrikanische  Petrefacten.  Ein  Versuch  die  gi-am- 
matischen  Bildungen  und  Formwurzeln  der  Afrikanischen  Sprachen  durch 
Sprachvergleichung  festzustellen.     93  pp.  8vo.     1891.     3s. 

SEIDEL     (A.).        Praktische     Grammatiken     der     Hauptsprachen     Deutsch- 
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180  pp.   12mo.  cloth.     No  date  (1892).     2s.  M. 
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sewed,  pp.  21.     1869.     Is. 

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guages, comprising  those  of  Zanzibar,  Mozamlnque,  the  Zambesi,  Kafirland, 
Benguela,  Angola,  the  Congo,  the  Ogowe,  the  Cameroons,  the  Lake  Region, 
&c.     336  pp.  royal  8vo.  cloth.     1891.     £1  5s. 
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WATSON  (C.  M.).  Comparative  Vocabularies  of  the  Languages  spoken  at 
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DAHIN.      Vocabulaire    adouma - francais    et    franfais - adouma.      72   pp.    8vo. 
1895.     6s. 

AFFAR  or  ADALI   (An  Abyssinian  Dialect). 
COLIZZA  (Giov.).     Lingua  Afar.     Nel  Nord-Est  dell'  Africa.     Grammatica, 

testi  e  Vocabolario.     pp.  xii.  and  153,  8vo.     1886.     6s. 
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112,  124,  and  82  pp.  8vo.     1885-87.     5s.  M. 

AGAU    (Jewish  Dialect  in  Abyssinia). 
HALEVY   (J).      Essai   sur  la  langue  Agau  ;    le  dialecte  des  Falachas  (Juifs 

d'Aljyssinie).     33  pp.  8vo.     1873.     2s.  M. 
WALDMEIER   (Th.).     "Wortersammlung  aus  der  Agausprache.     29  pp.  8vo. 
1868.     2s.  M. 

JEAND'HEUR  (F.).     Vocabulaire  francais-agni.     61  pp.  8vo.     1893. 

AKRA  or  GA    (Gold  Coast). 
CHRISTALLER  (J.  G.)  and   SCHOPF  (J.).     Primer  in  the  Ga  or  Akra 
Language.     (New  edition.)    8vo.  viii.  and  48  pp.     1892.     Is.  6d 

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4  African  L>(ii(jiia(/es — ArnhKric,  Arahlc. 

CHRISTALLER  ^.I.  (I.).  LOCHER  (Ch.  W.),  and  ZIMMERMANN  (T.). 

A  Dirtionary  of  Knglish,  Tshi  (Asante),  Akra,  Tslii  (('lnveo\  coniprising, 

as  Uiali^cts,   Akan  (Asante,  Akoiii,  Akiiaponi),  and  Fanle  ;    Akia  (Accra), 

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CoNTEsrs. — I.    Kurze  Si>raclilelirc.     II.    S;it/.c  ans  der  Umgangssprachc  des 

tagliclicn  Lchcns. 
ZiiVIIVlERIVIANN(J.).     A  Grammatical  Sketch  of  the  Akra  or  Ga  Language, 

with  a  Wicahuhiry  and  an  Appendix  on  the  Adanme  Dialect.     2  vols.  Svo. 

hoards,  pp   xvi.  and  203,  and  vii.  and  464.     1858.     10s.  M. 

AMHARIC   (Abyssinia). 

D'ABBADIE  (A.).     Dictionnaire  dc  la  langue  Amarinna.     xlvii.  and  1336  pp. 
Svo.     1881.     £2  2s. 

GUIDI    (Ig. ).     Grammatica  elementare  della  lingua  Amarina.     2nd  Edition, 
63  ])p.  Svo.     1892.     5s. 

SuUe  coningazioni  del  verlio  Aniarico.     18  pp.  Svo.     1893.     Is.  Qd. 

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MONDON-VIDAILHET  (C.).     Manuel  pratique  de  langue  Abyssiue  (Am- 
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PIANO  (F.).     Raccolta  delle  frasi  piu  usuali  tradotte  dall'  Italiano  in  Amarico. 
2nd  Edition,  revised  and  corrected.     125  pp.  12mo.     1887.     2s. 

PRAETORIUS  (F.).     Die  Amharische  Sprache.     In  two  parts.     523  pp.  4to. 
1878-79.     £1  10s. 

ARABIC   (Algerian  Dialect). 

BELKASSEM  (Ben  Sedira).     Cours  pratique  de  langue  arabe.     3rd  Edition. 
1888.     3s.  Qd. 

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DELAPORTE  (J.  H.).     Guide  de  la  conversation  arabe-fran9aise,  avec  le  mot 
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ment and  never  sold  to  the  public. 

HABEICHE  (J.  J.).     Dictionnaire  fran9ais-arabe,  i>our  Ic  dialectc  egyptien. 
^  2nd  Edition.     960  pp.  Svo.  boards.     1896.     £1  Is. 
The  Arabic  words  are  given  in  Arabic  characters  only. 

HARFOUCHE  (J.).     Le  drogman  arabe  ou  guide  pratique  de  I'arabe  parlc 
en  caraclcrcs  romains  pour  la  Syrie,   I'Egypte  et  la  Palestine.     354  pp. 
12ino.  cloth.     1894.     5s. 
L'ouvrage  contient  un  abregc  de  gramniaire,  un  vocabulaire,  des  dialogues 
vaiics,  des  arabismes  et  des  proverbes. 

HARTMANN    (M.).     Arabisclier  SprachftUirer  fiir  Reisende.     2nd  Edition, 
revi.sed,  16mo.  limp  roan.     1895.     5s. 
Arabic  in  the  Syi'ian  and  Egyptian  dialects  (in  English  characters). 
It  forms  a  volume  of  the  "  Meyer's  Sprachfuehrcr  "  Series. 

KASSAB  and  HAM  MAM.  Arabic-English  Dictionary.  803  pp.  post  Svo. 
cloth.     1SS8.     10,>'.  ^ 

Contains  words  of  the  Egyptian  and  Syiiac  spoken  dialects,  as  well  as  those 
of  the  written  classical  language. 

LANSING   (T.  G.).     Arabic  Manual.     2nd  Edition,     xv.  and  194  pp.  royal 
Svo.  cloth.     1891.     12s. 
The   work    is   divided    in    four    parts,    viz.,    the    Orthography,    Etymology, 
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Ko»an  in  Arabic,  with  a  transliteration,  translation,  and  a  vocabulary]. 

MANTELL  (A.  M.).     Arabic-English  Dictionary  of  Military  Terms.     72  pp. 
royal  Svo.     1SS6.     3s. 
The  English-Arabic  part  is  out  of  print. 

MARCEL  (J.  J.).  Dictionnaire  franjais-arabe  des  dialectes  vidgaires  d'Alger, 
d'Egy])te,  de  Tunis  et  du  Maroc.  5th  Edition,  revised  and  corrected, 
pp.  XV.  and  584.     1885.     7s.  6d. 

NAKHLAH    (Yakoub).      New  Manual  of  English  and   Arabic  conversation. 
217  ]>\i    .small  Svo.     1874.     4s. 
In  Arabic  and  Roman  characters. 

PALMER  (The  late  E.  H.).  Arabic  Manual,  comprising  a  condensed  Grammar 
of  both  the  classical  and  modern  Arabic,  reading  lessons  and  exercises  with 
analyses,  and  an  English-Arabic  vocabulary  of  useful  words.  3rd  Edition. 
315  pp.  12mo.  bound.     1891.     7s.  6d. 

■PIZZI  (T.).  Piccolo  manuale  dell'  arabo  vulgare  d'Egitto  con  temi  da  tradurse 
dall'arabo  i  Italiano  e  dall'Italiano  i  arabo  con  vocabulario  del  terni.  pp. 
192,  16mo.     1886.     2s.  6d. 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Triibner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Chariin/  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

African  Languages — Arahi'\  7 

PLUNKETT  (G.  T.).     English-Arabic  Vocabulary,  compiled  for  the  use  of 
English  residents  and  travellers  in  Egypt.     108  pp.  12mo.     1886.     2s.  %d. 
It  contains  3650  words,  including  many  technical  terms  required  by  military 
men,  engineers,  builders,  travellers  on  the  Nile,  &c.     In  Roman  characters 

PROBST  (F.).  Aegyptischer  Sprachfilhrer  ini  aegyptischen  Dialect  (Gram- 
matik,  arab-deutsch  und  deutsch-arab  Vocabular,  Gesprache).  280  pp. 
post  8vo.  bound.     1894.     5s. 

SEIDEL  (A.).     Praktisches  Handbuch  der  arabischen  Umgangssprache  aegypt- 
ischen Dialectes  mit  zahlreichen  Ubungsstllcken  und  einem  ausfulirlichen 
•         arobo-deutschem  Worterbuch.     310  pp.  8vo.     1894.     (New  issue  of  1896.) 
10s.  Qd. 
Printed  in  Roman  characters  only. 

SPIRO   (S.).     Arabic-English  A''ocabulary  of  the  colloquial  Arabic  of  Egypt, 
containing  the  vernacular  idioms  and  expressions,  slang  phrases,  &c.,  used 
by  the  native  Egyptians.     661  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1895.     25s. 
All  Arabic  words  are  printed  in  Arabic  and  Roman  characters. 

SPITTA-BEY.  Grammatik  des  Vulgaer-Dialectes  .ffigyptens.  xxxi.  and 
519  pp.  royal  8vo.  cloth.     1880.     £1  6s. 

STAGE  (E.  v.).     English-Arabic  Vocabulary  for  the  use  of  Students  for  the 
Colloquial.     218  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1893.     12s. 
Forms   the  counterpart  to   "Cameron's   Arabic -English   Vocabulary."     The 
Arabic  words  are  printed  in  Arabic  characters. 

THIMM    (C.   A.).      Egyptian  Arabic  self-taught,    for   the   practical   use   of 

travellers,  a.o.  70  pp.  8vo.  cloth.  1897.  2s.  6f^. 
TIEN  (A.).  Manual  of  Colloquial  Arabic,  comprising  practical  rules  for 
learning  the  language,  vocabulary,  dialogue,  letters,  and  idioms,  &c.,  in 
English  and  Arabic.  New  and  revised  edition.  419  pp.  12mo.  1891. 
7s.  Qd. 
All  Arabic  words  are  printed  in  Arabic  types,  M-ith  their  pronunciation  in 
Roman  characters. 

Egyptian,   Syrian,   and   North  African  Handbook.      176  pp.   12mo. 

1882.     4s. 

A  simple  phrasebook  in  English  and  Arabic  for  the  use  of  the  British  forces, 
civilians,  and  residents  in  Egypt.     [In  Roman  characters  only.] 

VOLLERS  (Dr.  K.).  Lehrbuch  der  jegypto-arabischen  Umgangssprache  mit 
Uebungen  und  einem  Glossar.  xi.  and  231  pp.  post  8vo.  1890.  Cloth, 
7s.  Qd.     In  ■WTapper,  6s.  6(/. 

Grammar  of  the  modern  Egyptian  Arabic,  with  exercises,   reading 

lessons,  and  glossaries.     Translated  into  English  by  F.  C.  Burkitt.     276  pp. 
8vo.  cloth.     1895.     10s.  M. 

WORTABET  (J.)  and  PORTER  (H.).  English-Arabic  and  Arabic-English 
Dictionary,  for  the  use  of  schools.  368  and  366  pp.  2  vols,  bound  in  one, 
small  8vo.  half-calf.     1894.     17s  M. 

WORTABET  (W.  T.).  Arabic-English  Dictionary,  compiled  with  the  assist- 
ance of  Rev.  Dr.  J.  Wortabet  and  Prof.  Harvey  Porter.  2nd  Edition, 
revised,  803  and  14  pp.  8vo.  half-bound.  1893.  £1  Is. 
To  the  classical  words  are  added  many  modern  words.  A  supplement  contains 
words  used  especially  in  Egypt,  and  a  list  of  military  and  technical  terms 
employed  by  the  Government  I)ei)artments.  The  past  and  present  future 
forms  of  the  verb  and  the  noun  of  action  or  noun  of  triliterals  in  full 
are  given. 

Kegan  Paul,   Trench,  Triibner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

8  African  LaiKjiiagcs — Arabic,  Atiaiifc. 

ARABIC   (Morocco  Dialect). 

AYUSO  vl^.  !■"•  ('•'I-     Oi;uuatii';i-aral)C,  luetodo  teorico  jn-actico.     2iul  Edition, 

ooni'otod  and  onlargod.     146  pp.  8vo.     1883.     6s. 
BALDWIN    (C.   W.).      Dialogas  espanoles  y  arabigos.      12iuo.  cloth.      1893. 
7*-.  6(/. 

English  -  Arabic    Dialogues,    for    llie    use    of    .students    in    Morocco. 

Revised   and  edited   by  "VV."  Mackintosh.      115   i)p.    12mo.   cloth.      1893. 
7s.  6(L 
All  Arabic  words  are  printed  in  the  Arabic  character. 
LERCHUNDI    (Fr.  Jose).     Rudinientos  del  arabe  vulgar  que  sc  habla  en  el 
iniii^rio  de  !^larrueeo.s.     2nd  Edition,  enlarged  and  revised,     xvi.,  463,  and 
56  pp.  Svo.     1889.     15s. 
Content.*:.— I.  Nociones  preliminares,  pp.  1-26;   II.  Del  articulo,  nombre  y 
prononibre,  pp.  27-174  ;   III.  Del  verbo  y  del  iiarticipio,  pp.  175-330,  &c. 

Vocabulario  cspanol-arabigo  (Morocco  dialect).     863  pp.  Svo.     1892. 

£1  Is. 
LERCHUNDI  Y  SIMONET.     Crestomatia  arabigo-espanola,  6  coleccion  de 
fragnientos,  historicos,  geogra[ihicos  y  literarios  relatios  a  la  Espana  arabe 
seguida   de  un  vocabulario   de  todos  los  tenninos  contenidos  en   dichos 
iVagmentos.     2  vols.  8vo.     1881-82.     18s.  6d. 
MEAKIN  (J.  G.  B.).     Morocco  Arabic  Series. 

Vol.  I.     Morocco  Arabic  [Maghribin  Arabic]  Vocabulary  and  Grammar  Notes. 
256  pp.  12mo.  cloth.     1891.     6s. 
Contents. — Introductory  note  and  practical  hints,  pp.  1-16  ;  Grammatical 
notes,  pp.  17-39  ;  English-Arabic  vocabulary  [in  Roman  characters  only] 
classified  according  to  subjects,  and  alphabetical  English  index  to  it, 
pp.  40-256. 
Vol.11.     English-Arabic  Dialogues.     See  under  "  Baldwin." 
SOCIN  (A.).     Zuni  arabischen  Dialect  von  Marokko.     8vo.     1893.     3s. 

ARABIC    (Tunisian  Dialect). 

BEAUSSIER  (M.).  Dictionuaire  pratique  arabe-fran9ais,  contenant  tous  les 
mots  dans  I'arabe  parle  en  Algerie  et  en  Tunisie,  ainsi  que  dans  le  style 
epistolaire,  les  pieces  usuelles  et  actes  judiciaires.  764  and  8  i)p.  4to.  cloth. 
1887.     £2. 

STUM  ME  (H.).  Graramatik  des  tunisischen  Arabisch  nebst  Glossar.  183  pp. 
8vo.     1896.     9s. 

ARABIC   (Zanzibar  Dialect). 

MORITZ  (B.).  Sammlung  arabischer  Schriftstuecke  mit  einem  Glossar. 
136  pp.  Arabic  text  and  22  Arabic  photographed  facsimile  plates,  xxxiv. 
and  112  pp.  in  German.  8vo.  cloth.  1892.  16s. 
Forms  Vol.  IX.  of  the  "  Lehrbucchor  des  Seminars  fuer  orientalische  S])rachen 
zu  Berlin,"  and  refers  to  the  dialects  of  Zanzibar  and  of  German  East 


(Guinea  Coast,  West  Africa). 

CHRISTALLER  (.J.  G.).  A  Grammar  of  the  Asante  or  Fante  Language  called 
Tshi  (Cliwee,  Twi),  based  on  the  Akuapera  Dialect,  with  Reference  to  the 
other  (Akan  and  Fante)  Dialects,  pp.  xxiv.  and  203,  8vo.  clotli.  1875. 
10s.  6d. 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Triihner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charinrj  Cross  Road,  London:  Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

African  Languages — Bambara,  Barea,  Bari,  Beclniana.  9 

CHRISTALLER  (J.  G.).  A  Dictionary  of  the  Asaiite  or  Fante  Language 
called  Tshi  (Cliwee,  Twi).  "With  a  Grammatical  Introduction  and 
Appendices  on  the  Geography  of  the  Gold  Coast,  pp.  xxviii.  and  671, 
8vo.  cloth.      1881.      £1. 

RMS  (H.  N.).  Grammatical  Outline  of  the  Oji  Language,  with  espeaial 
Reference  to  the  Akwapim  Dialect,  and  an  Akwapim- English  and  English- 
Akwapim  Vocabulary,  together  with  a  Collection  of  Proverbs  ot  the 
Natives.     8vo.  cloth,  pp.  viii.  and  276.     1854.     (Pub.  10s.)     6s. 

Elemente    des    Akwapim    Dialects    der    Odshi-Sprache,    enthaltend 

"rammatische  Gruudzuge  und  AVortersammlung,  nebst  eiuer  Sammlung 
von  Spriichwortern  der  Eingebornen.  pp.  xviii.  and  322,  8vo.  cloth. 
1853.     8s. 

BAMBARA   (Upper  Niger). 

BINGER  (G.).  Essai  sur  la  langue  bambara,  parlee  dans  le  Kaarta  et  dans  le 
Beledougou,  suivi  d'uu  vocabulaire,  avec  une  carte  indiquant  les  contrees  oil 
separlecette  langue.     12mo.  pp.  133,  cloth.     1886.     4s. 


(Negro  Dialect  on  the  Nubian  and  Abyssinian  Frontier). 
R  BIN  ISC  H   (L.).     Die  Barea  Sprache.     Grammatik,  Text,  und  AVorterbuch, 
nach    den    handschriftlichen    Materialien    vou   W.    JIunzinger.      186    pp. 
8vo.     1874.     6s. 

BARI   (Upper  Nile  Basin). 
MITTERRUTZNER   (J.  C).      Sprache  der  Bari.      Grammatik,  Text,  und 
Worterbuch.      8vo.   sewed,   pp.   xxv.   and  261.      1867.     5s.      Added  is  a 
small  vocabulary  of  the  Ngyang-Bara  language,  by  Morlang. 
MULLER    (F.),      Die    Sprache   der   Bari.      Ein   Beitrag   zur   Afrikanischen 
Linguistik.     8vo.  boards,  pp.  84,  interleaved.     1864.     Is.  6d. 
Contents.— Grammatik,  Lesestticke,  deutsch-bari  und  bari-deutsches  Glossar. 


(A  Kaffir  Dialect). 
ARCHBELL  (J.).     Grammar  of  the  Bechuana  Language.     8 vo.  boards.    Very 

scarce.     1837.     15s. 
CRISP   (W.).     Notes  towards  a  Secoaiia  Grammar.     Second  Edition.     8vo. 

pp.  104.     1886.     2s.  6c;. 
ENDEMANN    (K.).      Versuch  einer   Grammatik   des   Sotho.      201   pp.   8vo. 

1876.     6.V. 
JACOTTET  (E.).     Elementary  sketch  of  the  Se-Suto  grammar.     71  pp.  8vo. 

1892.     5s. 
KRUGER  (F.  H.).  Steps  to  learn  the  Sesuto  language,  comprising  an  elementary 

grammar,  graduate  exercises,  and  a  short  vocabulary.     2nd  Edition.    98  pp. 

8vo.  limp  cloth.     1883.     5s. 
MABILLE  (A.).     Se-Suto-English  and  English-Se-Suto  Vocabulary  ;   and  E. 

Jacottet,  Elementary  Sketch  of  tlie  Se-Suto  Grammar.     Two  works  bound 

in  one  volume.     487  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1893.     10s.  6d. 

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10    Afriran  LamjiKi'jo^ — Bedainje,  Bviilairi,  Bvuijuela,  Berber,  Bit  in. 

BEDAUYE    (Xouth-East  Afuica). 

REINISCH  [I,.),  lu'ilauvo  Siuache  in  Nordost-Africa.  3  iiaits,  74,  80,  and 
204  i>p.  liivgc  Svo.     1893-94.     Gs. 

AVortcrlmch  dor  Bcdaiiyo  Spvache.     365  i)p.  Svo.     1895.     16s. 

BEIDAWI   (TuiBKs  OF  THE  North-Eastern  Soudan). 

HAIG  (F.  T.).  Toiitativo  <(ranniiar  of  the  l>eida\vi  language,  spoken  l)y  tlie 
ttil'cs  of  the  Xorth-Eastcrn  Soudan,  with  slioit  vocabularies  and  sentences. 
79  pp.  post  Svo.     1895.     3s. 

BENGUELA,  or  BENGA   (West  Africa). 

SALVADO  Y  COS  i^Rdo.  P.  F.).  Colcccion  de  Apuntcs  Preliminares  sobre  la 
Lengua  Benga  6  sea  Iiitroduccion  a  una  Graniatica  de  Este  Idioma  que  se 
habla  en  la  Isla  do  Corisco,  Puel)los  de  Su  Bahi'a  e  Islas  Adyacentcs.  pp. 
148,  31.     Svo.  cloth.     1891.     7s.  U.  , 

SCHUCHARDT  (H.).  Ueber  die  Benguela-sprache.  Royal  Svo.  pp.  14. 
1883.     Is.  Qd. 

BERBER   (North  Africa). 

BASSET  (K.).  Notes  de  lexicographic  berbere.  4  parts.  62,  111,  8S,  and 
100  pp.  Svo.     1883-88.     15s. 

Le  dialecte  de  Syouah  :  Grammaire  et  glossaire.     viii.  and  98  pp.  Svo. 

1890.     4s. 

Loqman  Berbere  :  texte  berbere  et  transcription  avec  glossaire  et  une 

etude  sur  la  legende  de  Loqman.     409  pp.  Svo.     1890.     10s. 

Etudes  sur  les  dialectes  berberes.     xiv.  and  165  pp.  Svo.     1894.     7s. 

Etude  sur  la  zenatia  du  Mzab,  de  Ouargla  et  de  I'Oued-Rir.     xv.  and 

•274  pp.  Svo.     1892.     10s.  M. 
FAIDHERBE  (Le  General).     Le  Zenaga  des  tribus  senegalaises.     Contribution 
;i  IVtude  de  la  langue  berbere.     Large  Svo.  sewed,  pp.  95.     1877.     4s.  6rf. 

GABELENTZ  (G.  von  der).     Verwandtschaft  des  Baskisehen  mit  den  Berber- 

sprachen  Xord-Afrikas  herausgegeben  nach  den  hinterlassenen  Manuscripten 

durch  A.  G.  Graf  von  der  Schulenburg.     286  pp.  text,  with  4  tables.     Svo. 

1894.     12s. 
MERCIER  (G.).     Le  Chaouia  de  I'Aures  (dialecte  de  I'Ahmar-Khaddou)  Etude 

graniniaticale.     Texte  en  dialecte  chaouia.     Svo.     1897.     3s.  &d. 
RINN  (L.).     Les  origines  berberes  :  etudes  linguistiqiies  et  ethnologiques.    Svo. 

1889.     10s. 
SIERAKOWSKI    (A.    Graf).      Das   Schaui.      Ein   Beitrag  zur  berbcrischen 

Spraehen  und  Voelkerkunde.     138  pp.  Svo.     1871.     4s. 
VENTURE  DE  PARADIS.     Grammaire  et  dictionnairc  abreges  de  la  langue 

berbere,  revus  par.  P.  Am.  .Jaubert.     pp.  235,  4to.     1844.     12s.  &d. 

BILIN,  or  BOGOS   (North-East  Africa). 

REINISCH    (L.).      Die  Bilinsprache  in  Nordost-Africa  mit  einer  Ubersichts- 
tabelle  der  Verbformen.     138  pp.  Svo.     1882.     2s.  M. 

Die  Bilin-Sprache. 

Vol.  L     Texte  der  Bilin-Sprache.     Royal  Svo.  pp.  viii.  and  322.     1883.     10s. 
Vol.   n.      Worterbuch  der   Bilin-Sprache.     Royal  Svo.    pp.    vi.    and   426. 
1887.     £1. 

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^  African  Langnages—Bf'shari,  Bornv,  Biibi,  BnJIoni,  Bunda.     11 

BISHARI   (Nubia). 
ALMKVIST    (H.).      Die   Bischari-Sprache  Tu-Bedawie   in   Nordost-Afrika. 
2  vols.     4to.  sewed,  pp.  v.  and  302  and  vi.  and  113.     1881-85.     £1  10s. 
Contents  :  Vol.  I.     Grammatik. 

Vol.  II.     Bischari-deutsch  nnd  dentscli-biscliari  Worterhuch. 

BORNU,  or  KANURI   (Central  Africa). 

KOELLE  (S.  W.).  Grammar  of  the  Bornu  or  Kannri  Language.  8vo.  cloth, 
pp.  xix.  and  326.     1854.     7s.  6d 

African  Native  Literature  or  Proverbs,  Tales,  Fables,  and  Historical 

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lation of  the  above  and  a  Kanuri-English  Vocabulary.  Royal  8vo.  cloth, 
pp.  xiv.  and  434.     1854.     7s.  M. 

NORRIS  (E.).  Grammar  of  the  Bornu  or  Kanuri  Language.  With  Dialogues, 
Translations,  and  Vocabulary.  8vo.  pp.  101.  (Out  of  print  and  scarce.) 
1853.     6s. 

BUBI   (Spoken  on  Island  of  Fernando  Po). 
JUANOLA  (J.).     Primer  paso  a  la  lengua  Bubi  6  sea  ensayo  a  una  gramatica 
de  este  idioma  seguido  do  tres  apendices.     189  pp.  8vo.     1890.     6s. 


(Dialect  of  Mandigo  vernacular,  near  Sierra  Leone,  West  Africa). 
NYLANDER  (Rev.  G.  R. ).    Grammar  and  Vocabulary  of  the  Bullom  Language, 
pp.  159,  small  8vo.  cloth.     1814.     4s. 


(Loanda,  West  Africa). 

CANNECATTIM    (F.   B.  M.   de).      CoUec^ao  de  observa9oes  grammaticaes 

sobre  a  lingua  Bunda,  ou  Angolense.     4to.  half-bound,  pp.  xx.  and  218. 

1805.     10s.  U. 

The  same.     Second  Edition,     xviii.  and  174  pp.  8vo.     1859.     7s.  Qd. 

Diccionario  da  lingua  Bunda,  ou  Angolense,  explicada  na  Portugueza, 

e   Latina.      pp.    ix.    720,    8vo.      1S04.      Bound   up   in   one   vokime   with 

F.  B.  M.  DE  CANNECATTIM,  Collec9ao  de  observa95es  grammaticaes  sobre  a 

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Sec°ond  Edition.     174  pp.  8vo.     1859.     £2  2s. 
CASTAGNA   (N.).      Di  alcuni  vocaboli  e  modi  del  vernacolo  angolano  col 

riscontro  italiano  o  toscano.     32  pp.  12mo.     1891.     Is.  6^. 
CHATELAIN    (H.).      Grammatica    clementar   do    Kimbundu   ou   lingua   de 

Angola,     xxiv.  and  172  pp.  8vo.     1889.     Out  of  print.     7s.  6(i 
CORDEIRO    DA    MATT  A.      Ensaio   de  diccionario  kimbundu -portugiiez. 

174  pp.  8vo.     1893.     4s. 
WOODWAR D  (W.  H. ).     Collections  for  a  Handbook  of  the  Boondei  Language. 

8v<).  cloth.     1882.     4s.  ,  ,    t.     i-  t.  t,       j  • 

Contains  grammatical  notes   and   a   Boondei-English   and    English-iioondei 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Trilbner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No,  X. 

12    A/n'ran  Laiujxuiges — Cape  Dufi-Ji,  C/niniir,  Dalioiteij,  Denlxa. 


MANSFELT  (N.)-  Troovo  van  coii  Kanpscli-HoUandscli  idioticon  met  toelicht 
oil  oimierk.     8vo.     1884.     Cv. 

VILJOEN  (W.  J.).  Bcitriigo  zur  Gcschiclite  dcr  Cap  Ilollaiidisclieii  Sprache. 
1)8  jip.  Svo.     1896.     2s. 

CHAMIR    (Abyssinia). 

REINISCH  (L.).  Die  Chaniiispraehe  in  Abessinien.  2  parts,  127  and  136  pp. 
with  two  large  tables,  Svo.     1884.     5s. 

DAHOMEY   (Guinea  Coast). 

BONNAVENTURE  (A.)-  Kloments  de  granimaire  do  la  langne  fon  on 
dahouK'enno,  siiivis  d'un  voeabiilairo  et  d'lin  rceueil  de  conversation. 
74  pp.  Svo.     1895.     2s.  M. 

COURDIOUX  Dictionnaire  de  la  langue  Tog-be  ou  dalionieenne.     Svo. 
\'ol.  I.  Francais-tlalionieen.     1879.     4s.  6d. 

DELAFOSSE  (M.).  Manuel  dahonieen  cont.  une  gramniaire,  clircstoniathie, 
et  1111  diutioiiiuiire  fraiiijais-dalionieeu  et  dahomeen-fraii9ais.  436  pp.  Svo. 
1894.     10s. 

DENKA,  or  DINKA  (Kordofan). 

BELTRAME  (G. ).     Graiumatiea  della  lingua  denka.    159  pp.  Svo.     1870.     5s. 

MITTERRUTZNER  (J.  C).  Die  Dinka-Sprache  in  Central  Afrika  ;  kurze 
Graiiiinatik,  Text,  und  Dinkaisch-Deutsch-Italienisclies  Wiirterbuch.  Svo. 
pp.  308.     1866.     7s. 

DUALLA  (At  Fernando  Po,  West  Coast). 

CHRISTALLER  (J.  G.).  Handbuch  der  Dualla-Sprache.  216  pp.  Svo.  cloth, 
1892.     4s.  M. 

SEIDEL  (A.).  Leitfaden  zur  Erleruung  der  Dualla-sprache  in  Kamerun  mit 
Lesestuecken  und  eineni  deutseh-dualla  und  dualla-deutscliem  Woerterbuche. 
S3  pp.  large  Svo.     1892.     3s. 

EFIK  (Old  Calabar). 

{Chief  Language  on  the  estuary  of  the  Cross  river), 

GOLDIE  (H.).  Principles  of  Efik  grammar,  with  specimen  of  the  language. 
105  pp.  12rao.  cloth.     1868.     3s.  M. 

Dictionary  of  the  Efik-English  and  English-Efik  Language.      643 

and  42  pp.  Svo.  bound.     N.D.     £1  5s. 


(Western  Part  of  the  Slave  Coast,  East  of  the  River  Volta). 

EWE-LE.SEFIBEL.     64  pp.  Svo.  boards.     1892.     2s. 

EWE  XECHLE-AGBALE.  Ewe  Reading  Book  (Part  II.)  for  the  upper 
classes  of  the  elementary  schools  of  the  North  German  Missionary  Society. 
160  pp.  small  Svo.     1886. 

Kegan  Pmd,  Trench,  TrUbner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London;   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X, 

African  Languages— Falasha,  Fan,  Fernandian,  Fiote,  Fiilah.   13 

HENRICI  (E.).  Lelubuch  der  Ephc  [Ewe]  Sprache,  Anlo-,  Anecho-,  uud 
Dahome-Mundart,  mit  Glossar  und  einer  Karte  der  Sklavenkuste.  xxi.  and 
270  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1891.     16s.  •     .  i-    •,     a        i 

Forms  Vol.  VI.  of  the  "  Lehrbiicher  des  Seminars  fiir  oneutalische  hprachen 

zu  Berlin." 
KNUESLI  (A.).    Deutsch-Ewe  Woerterbuch.    413  pp.  lithographed  4to.  cloth. 

1892.     £2. 
KNUESLI   (J.).      Ewe-German-English   Dictionary.      1084   pp.   lithographed 

small  4to.  cloth.     1891.     £2. 
SCHLEGEL  (J    B.).      Schliissel  zur  Ewe-Sprache.     Dargeboten  in  den  gram- 

matischen  Grundzilgen  des  Anlo-Dialekts  derselben  mit  Woertersammlung, 

&c.     8vo.  pp.  xxiv.  and  328.     1857.     5s. 

FALASHA  (an  Agau  Dialect,  spoken  by  Jews  in  Abyssinia). 
FLAD  (W   J  )      Elements  and  Vocabulary  of  the  Falasha  language  [spoken  in 
Abyssinia].     Ed.  by  Dr.  L.  Krapff.     92  pp.  12mo.     1866.     Is.  U. 

FAN  (Western  Africa,  South  of  the  Equator). 
ZABALA  (A.  0.).     Vocabulary  of  the  Fan  language  in  Western  Africa   with 
Spanish  interpretations  prepared  on  the  spot.     vi.  and  34  pp.  small  8vo. 
1887.     2s. 

FERNANDIAN  (Island  of  Fernando  Po). 
CLARKE   (J.).      Introduction  to  the  Fernandian  Tongue.     Part  I.     Second 

Edition,     pp.  viii.  and  56.     8vo.  cloth.     1848.     12s.  U. 
Contains  a  comparative  table  of  ten  primitive  words  in  232  African  Dialects. 

Very  scarce. 

FIOTE  (French  Congo). 
CARRIE.      Grammaire  de  la  langue  fiote,   dialecte  du   Kakongo.      198   pp. 

small  8vo.     1890. 
USSEL.     Petite  gi^ammaire  de  la  langue  fiote,   dialecte  du  Loango.     88  pp. 

small  8vo.     1888.     2s. 
VISSEQ  (A.).     Grammaire  fiote  (langue  du  Congo).     64  pp.  small  8vo.  cloth. 

1889.     2s.  M. 
Dictionnaire  fran?ais-fiote  (langue  du  Congo).     156  pp.   small   8vo. 

cloth.     1889.     3s. 
Dictionnaire  francais-fiote  (dialecte  du  Kakongo).     145  pp.  small  8vo. 

cloth.     1890.     3s. 
Dictionnaire  fiot-fran9ais.     211  pp.  small  8vo.  cloth.     1890.     4s.  6^^. 


(South  of  Lower  Senegal). 

FAIDHERBE.  Grammaire  et  vocabulaire  de  la  langue  poul  a  I'usage  de 
voyageurs  dans  le  Soudan.    Second  Edition.    165  pp.  12mo.  cloth.    1882.  ^  4s. 

GUIRAUDON  (T.  G.  de).  Manuel  de  la  langue  foule,  parlee  dans  la  Sene- 
crambie  et  Ic  Sou.lan  (containing  a  Grammar,  Text,  and  a  French-Foule 
Vocabulary).     144  pp.  post  8vo.  cloth.     1894.     6s.  

Keqan  Paul,  Trench,  Triibner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:  Oriental  Catalogue  Ao.  A. 

14     Afn'ran  LaiKjumjen—Ga/lo,  Ghdf,  Ginjama,  Greho,  Harari. 

KRAUSE  {G.  A.).     Beitrag  znr  Kcnntiiiss  dcr  Fulischen  Sprachc  in  Afrika. 
lOS  i>j>.  witli  language  niaji,  Svo.     1884.     4s. 
Fovins  Tart  I.  oftlio  "  iMitllunlungon  dcr  Riebcck'sclion  Niger  Expedition.' 

REICHARDT  (I'.  J.).    Trinier  of  the  Fuldc  Language.    Svo.  cloth.   1859.    Is.M. 

REICHARDT  (t"!i.  A.  1..).  Grammar  of  the  Fulde  Language,  with  an 
Ai>peiuli.K  of  some  orii,'inal  Traditions  and  Portions  of  Scripture  translated 
into  Fulde,  together  with  8  ehaiiters  of  the  Book  of  Genesis.  Translated 
by  Dr.  Baikie.*^    Svo.  cloth,  pp.  xxiii.  and  339.     1876.     12s.  Qd. 

REICHARDT  (C.  J.).  Vocabulary  of  the  Fulde  Language,  Fulde-English 
and  English-Fulde.     Zul  pp.  Svo.  cloth.     1878.     10s.  6(/. 

Three  original  Fullah  pieces  in  Arabic  and  Roman  characters,  with 

English  translation.     62  pp.  Svo.     1859.     Is.  6(/. 

GALL  A,  or  OROMONA,  or  OKOMONICA  (East  Africa.) 
KRAPF  (L.).     Vocabulary  of  the  Galla  Language,     43  pp.  small  Svo.  cloth, 

1S42.     Is.  &d. 
PRAETORIUS  (F.).     Ziir  Grammatik  der  Gallasprache.     viii.  and  310  pp. 

Svo.     1S93.     £1  2s.  &d. 
SCOLART  (L.).     Grammatica  oromona  ossia  della  lingua  parlata  nel  paese  dei 

Gallas  e  nell'  Abessinia.     63  pp.  Svo.     1885.     3s. 
Frasario  e  vocaboli  in  lingua  Aniarica-Oromona-Araba-Inglese  con  le 

preghiere  in  Etiopico.     71  pp.  lithographed,  12mo.     1888.     2s.  60^. 
VITERBO   (E.).      Grammatica   e   dizionario  della  lingua  Oromonica  (Galla). 

2  vols.  150  and  105  pp.  small  Svo.  cloth.     1892.     5s. 
Vol.  L  Galla-Italiano  ;  vol.  IL  Italiano-Galla. 

GHAT  (A  Bantu  language  spoken  North  of  Mombasa). 

KRAUSE  (G.  A.).  Proben  der  Sprache  von  Ghat  in  Sahara.  Mit  Haussan- 
ischer  und  Deutscher  Uebersetzung.  Mit  einer  Kartenskizze  und  facsimiles, 
pp.  82  Svo.     1884.     4s.  . 

Forms  Part  IL  of  the  "  Mittheilungen  der  Riebeck'schen  Niger  Expedition. 

TAYLOR  (W.  E.).     Giryama  Vocabulary  and  collections,     xxvii.  and  140  pp. 

small  8vo.  cloth.     1891.     6s.  M. 

GREBO    (Ivory  Coast). 
PAYNE  (J.).     Dictionary  of  the  Grebo  language.     153  pp.  small  Svo.     1867. 
Very  scarce.     16s. 

(A  Semitic  Language  in  the  North-East  of  Africa). 
IVIULLER  (Fr.).     Ueber  die  Harari-Sprache  im  oestlichen  Afrika.     15  pp.  Svo. 
1864.     Is.  6fZ. 

HAUSA   (East  of  the  Niger), 
DIRR   (A.).     Manuel  pratique  de  la  langue  haoussa,  langue  commerciale  du 
Soudan,  avec  exercices  gradues,  une  chrestomathie  et  vocabulaire  et  une 
preface  par  le  commandant  MonteiL     140  pp.  12mo,     1895.     5s, 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Triihner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

African  Languages — Herero,  Iho,  Idzo.  15 

LE  ROUX  (J.  M.)-     Essai  de  dictioniiaire  franfais-liaoussa  et  liaoussa-fran(;ais, 
precede  d'un  essai  de  grammaire  de  la  laugiie  haoussa  (parlee  par  les  negres 
du  Soudan).     With  a  large  map  of  North  Africa,     xlv.  and  330  pp.  large 
8vo.     1886.     16s. 
MAGANA  HAUSA.     Native  Literature  :  or,  Proverbs,  Tales,  Fables,  Historical 
Fragments   in  the  Hausa  Language,   with  a  translation  in  English.     By 
J.  F.  Schoen.     12ino.  cloth,  pp.  xx.  and  288.     1885.     4s. 
ROBINSON  (C.  H.).     Specimens  of  Hausa  literature  ;  Hausa  text  (in  Roman 
characters)  with  English  translation,  facsimile  of  the  Hausa  text  and  notes. 
xix.  112  pp.  and  facsimile  plates,  large  8vo.  cloth.     1896.     10s.  M. 
Edition  without  the  text  in  facsimile,  5s. 

Hausa  gi-ammar,  with  exercises,  readings,  and  a  vocabulary,  123  pp., 

with  a  facsimile  specimen  of  Hausa  MS.  in  Arabic  characters.  8vo.  cloth. 
1897.    5s.    Forms  a  volume  of  Trtibner's  Collection  of  Simplified  Grammars. 

Hausa  dictionary  in  prejjaration. 

SCHOEN  (J.  F.).    Farawa  Letafin  Magana  Hausa,  a  Primer  and  Vocabulary  in 
the  Haussa  Language.     2  parts.     8vo.  cloth,  pp.  53  and  46.     1857.     2s.  M. 

Grammar  of   the  Hausa  Language.     8vo.   cloth,  pp.  xiv.    and  234. 

]  862.     5s. 

Vocabulary  of  the  Haussa  Language.     Part  L     English  and  Haussa. 

Part  II  Haussa  and  ;  and  Phrases  and  Specimens  of  Ti-anslations, 
to  which  are  prefixed  the  grammatical  elements  of  the  Haussa  language, 
jjp.  vi.  and  220,  8vo.     1843.     5s. 

Appendix  to  the  Dictionary  of  the  Hausa  Language  (published  1876), 

Hausa-English  Part,  with  additions  of  Hausa  Literature.  Post  8vo.  cloth, 
pp.  iv.  and  206.  1888.  5s.  Printed  in  Roman  characters  only,  ihe 
dictionary,  which  was  published  in  1876,  is  out  of  print. 

Hausa  Reading  Book,  with  the  rudiments  of  grammar  and  vocabularies, 

and  travellers'  vade  viecuin.     8vo.     1877.     2s.  6d. 

HERERO   (South- West  Africa). 
BRINCKER  (H.).     Wurterbuch  und  kurzgefasste  Grammatik  des  O^i-herero 
mit  Beifilgung  verwaudter  Ausdriicke  und  Fornien  des  Oshi-ndonga-Otjanibo, 
herausgegebeS  von  C.  G.  Biittner.     351  and  31  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1886.     25s. 
HAHN    (C    H  ).      Grundziige  einer  Grammatik   des   Herero  (im   Westlichen 
Afrika),  nebst  einem  Worterbuche,  with  grammatical  tables.     8vo.  pp.  xi. 
and  197.     1857.     6s. 
KOLBE  (F  W.)    An  English-Herero  Dictionary,  with  an  introduction  to  the 
study  of  Herero  and  Bantu  in  general.     Post  8vo.  cloth,     pp.  Iv.  and  569. 
1883.     15s. 

IBO,  or  IGBO   (North-East  of  the  Niger  Delta). 
CROWTHER  (Bishop  S.).     Vocabulary  of  the  Ibo  language.     2  vols.     5s. 
Part  I.     Ibo-English.     viii.  and  109  pp.  small  8vo.     1882. 
Part  II.     English-Ibo,  by  J.  F.  Schoen.     90  pp.  post  8vo.     1883. 
Single  volumes  are  sold  separately  at  3s.  each. 
SCHOEN  (J.  F.).     Grammatical  Elements  of  the  Ibo  language.     12mo.  cloth, 
pp.  94.     1861.     2s. 

IDZO,  or  IDSO   (Niger  Delta). 
CAREW  (W.  E.  L.).    Primer  in  the  Ubani  dialect  of  the  Idso  language.    27  pp. 
8vo.  limp  cloth.     Is.  6d, 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  THibner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Uitcdogtie  No.  X. 

16   African  Languages — Kabdil,  Kajja,  Kagnni,  Kamha,  Kavirondo. 


(IIamitu^  I..\ni;uai;k,  Xortu  Coast  ok  Africa). 

AHMED  BEN  KHOUAS.     Notions  succhites  do  grammaiie  kabyle.     86  i)ii. 

V-'iuo.      18S1.     -Is. 
BASSET  (K.).     Maiuiel  rle  laiigvie  kabyle  (dialecte  Zoiiaoua),  contenant  grarn- 

iiiairo,  bihli(igra]iliio,  chrcstomathie  ct  lexiquc.     8vo.  clotli.     1887.     7s.  M. 

BELKASSEM  BEN  SEDIRA.  Cours  do  languc  kabyle  (dialecte  Zouaoua), 
gianiniaiie,  versions,  coiites,  fables,  &c.  248  and  430  pp.  12mo.  cloth. 
1SS7.     S.s'.  6rf. 

CREUSAT.  Essai  de  dictionnaire  fram^ais-kabyle  (Zouaoua)  j)i'ccedc  des 
cli  nionts  de  cette  langue.     12nio.     5s. 

HANOTEAU  (A.).  Essai  de  granimaire  kabyle  rcnferniaut  les  principes  du 
langage  parlo  par  les  populations  du  versant  nord  du  Jurjura,  et  s])eciale- 
nieut  par  les  Igaouaouen  ou  Zouaoua,  suivi  de  notes  et  d'une  notice  sur 
quelques  inscrij)tions  en  caractcres  dits  Tifiuar'  et  en  langue  Tamaclier't. 
Large  8vo.  sewed,  pp.  xxiv.  and  393.     Out  of  print.     1858.     15s. 

NEWMAN  (F.  W.)  Kabail  Vocabulary.  Supplemented  by  Aid  of  a  New 
.Source,     pp   124,  crown  8vo.  cloth.     1887.     5s. 

OLIVIER.     Dictionnaire  fran9ais-kabyle.     316  pp.  12mo.  cloth.     1878.     6s. 

KAFFA   (A  Dialect  of  Gonga,  S.-W.  Abyssinia). 

REINISCH  (L.).  Die  Kafa-sprache  in  Nordost  Africa.  2  parts.  93  and  138 
pp.  8vo.     1888.     4s. 


LAST  (J.  T. ).  Grammar  of  the  Kaguru  language  Eastern  Equatorial  Africa. 
147  pp.  12mo.  cloth.     1886.     2s. 


(Eastern  Bantu  Language  in  Eastern  Equatorial  Africa). 

LAST  (J.  T. ).  Grammar  of  the  Kamba  Language  (Eastern  Equatorial  Africa). 
8vo.  cloth,  pp.  40.     1885.     2s. 

KAVIRONDO  (East  of  Victoria  Nyanza). 

WAKEFIELD  (M.).  V^ocabulary  of  the  Kavirondo  Language.  8vo.  pp.  7. 
1887.     Is. 

KIBANGI  (Upper  Kongo). 

SIMS  (A.).  Vocabulary  of  Kibangi  as  spoken  Ijy  the  Babangi  (commonly 
called  Bayansi)  on  the  Upper  Kongo  from  Kwa  Mouth  (Kasai)  to  Liboko 
(Bangala).     Ill  pp.  8vo.     1886.     3s.  M. 

KILOLO  or  LUNKUNDU  (Upper  Kongo). 

EDDIE  (J.  B.).     Vocabulary  of  Kilolo  as  spoken  by  the  Bankundu,  a  section 

of  the  Balolo  tribe  at  Ikengo,  with  a  few  introductory  notes  on  the  grammar. 

203  pj).  small  8vo.     1887.     8s. 
McKITTRICH  (J.  and  F.  T.).     Guide  to  the  Lunkundu  language.     230  pp. 

8vo.     1893.     4s.  Qd. 
[HAILES  (L.  M.).]     Kilolo-English  vocabulary.     159  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1891. 

2s.  Qd. 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Triibner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No,  X, 

African  Languages — Ki/tiassa,  Kisulmma,  Kiteke,  Ki-Tikuu.     17 

KINIASSA  (Lake  Nyassa). 

REBMAN  (J.).     Dictionary  of  the  Kiuiassa  Language.     Edited  by  L.  Kiapf. 
8vo.  cloth,  i>p.  viii.  and  182.     1877.     5s. 

KISUKUMA  (on  Victoria  Nyanza). 

SEIDEL  (A.).     Das  Kisukunia.     Granimatische  Skizze  mit  kisukunia-deutsch 
und  deutsch-kisukunia  Wijiterbuche.     18  pp.  8vo.     1894.     Is.  ^d. 

KITEKE  (Spoken  by  the  Batekes  on  the  Upper  Congo). 
SIMS  (A.).    Euglish-Kiteke  Vocabulary.     190  i>p.  small  8vo.  boards.    1886.    4s. 

KI-TIKUU  and  KI-POKOMO  (Swahili  Dialects). 

WLJRTZ   (F.)  and   SEIDEL  (A.).     AVurterbuch  der  Ki-Tikuu  und  der  Ki- 
Pokonio  Sprachen  in  Ost  Africa.     63  jip.  large  8vo.     1895.     6s. 

KONGO.     (8ee  also  under  "Fiote.") 

A.  M.  D.  G.     Elements  de  la  langue  cougolaise,  suivie  d'un  choix  de  phrases  et 

de  deux  vocaljulaires.     95  jip.  small  8vo.  cloth.     1895.     2s.  M. 
BARFIELD  (J.).    The  Concords  of  the  Congo  Language  as  spoken  at  Palaballa, 

being  a  contribution  to  the  Syntax  of  the  Congo  Tongue,  with  illustrative 

sentences.     160  pp.  8vo_.  half  calf.     1884.     4s. 
BENT  LEY  (W.   H.).     Dictionary  and  Grammar  of  the  Congo  Language,  as 

spoken  at  San  Salvador,  the  ancient  capital  of  the  old  Congo  Empire,  West 

Africa,     xxiv.  and  718  pp.  8vo.     1887.     £1  Is. 

Appendix  to  it,  forming  pp.  719-1052  of  the  entire  work.     8vo.  cloth. 

1895.     10s.  M. 

BRUSCIOTTO.  Grammar  of  the  Congo  Language  as  spoken  200  years  ago, 
translated  from  the  Latin  by  H.  Grattan  Guinness,  i)]).  xii.  and  112,  8vo. 
cloth.     1882.     8s. 

^AMBIER.     Essai  sur  la  langue  cougolaise.     124  i))).  interleaved,  small  8vo. 
1891.     4s. 

CRAVEN  (H.)  and  BARFIELD  (J.).  English-Congo  and  Congo-English 
Dictionary,  with  Ajipendix  containing  useful  sentences,  pp.  xii.  284  and 
xix.  8vo.  half  bound.     1883.     6s. 

GUINNESS  (H.  G.).  Grammar  of  the  Congo  Language  as  spoken  in  the  cataract 
region  below  Stanley  Pool.    267  pp.  small  8vo.  cloth.    1882.    Scarce.    10s.  6d 

KUNAMA  (Abyssinia). 

REINISCH  (L.).  Die  Kunama-Sjirache  in  Nordost-Afrika.  Li  4  parts.  90, 
96,  112,  and  136  ])p.  8vo.     1881-91.     8s. 

KWAFI,  or  WAKUAFI  (East  Africa). 
KRAPF    (Rev.    Dr.   J.   L.).       Vocabulary   of    the    Engutuk    Eloikob,    or  the 
Language  of  tlie  Wakuafi-Nation  in  the  Interior  of  E(^uatorial  Africa.     8vo. 
cloth,  pp.  144.     1854.     3s.  U. 


NEWMAN  (F.  W.).  Libyan  Vocabulary,  an  essay  towards  reproducing  the 
ancient  Numidian  language  out  of  four  modern  tongues.  204  pp.  8vo.  cloth. 
1882.     10s.  6d 

Keijan  Paul,  Trench,  Triihner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charinij  Cross  Road,  London:   OrinUal  Calaloijue  No.  X, 

18       A/rican  Lanjuages — Luha,  Lu'jauda,  Malma,  Malagasy. 

LUBA  (Central  Africa). 
About  b"  North  Lat.,  30°  East  of  Grecnunch. 
SWAN  (C.  A.).     Notes  on  the  grammatical  construction  of  Cliilul)a  as  s])okeu 
in  Ciaronganzo  (Central  Africa),  with  brief  vocabularies  in  Luba-Euglish  and 
English- Luba,  and  six  chapters  in  Chiluba  from  the  (!ospel  of  St.  John. 
G3  pp.  post  Svo.  cloth.     1892.     3s. 


(Spoken  in  the  Uganda  Country  on  the  Victoria  Nyanza). 

JIANUEL  DE  LANGUE  LUGANDA  comprenant  la  grammaire  et  un  recueil  de 
contes  et  de  logcndes.    Second  edition.    286  pp.  small  8vo.     1894.     10s.  M. 

O'FLAHERTY  (Ph.).     Collection  for  a  Lnganda-English  and  English-Luganda 

Lexicon.     41  pp.  Svo.  cloth.     No  date  (1894).     2s. 
PILKINGTON  (G.  L.).    Handbook  of  Luganda.    93  pp.  12mo.  cloth.    1892.    2s. 

PRI M  ER.  Lettersand  Syllables,  and  the  Commandments  in  the  Luganda  Language 
[Ekitabo  ekj'o  kusoka],    Fcap.  8vo.  boards,  pp.  14.    London,  1887.    Is.  M. 

WILSON  (C.  T.).  An  Outline  Grammar  of  the  Luganda  Language,  with  an 
English-Luganda  and  Luganda- English  Vocabulary.  Fcap.  Svo.  cloth. 
1883.     3s. 

LUNDA  (Language  of  Central  Africa  South  of  Equator). 

CARVALHO  (H.  A.  Dias  de).     Metodo  pratico  para  faUar  a  lingua  da  Lunda. 
xxii.  and  391  pp.  Svo.     1890.     16s. 
Contains  a  grammar,  chrestomathy,  dictionary,  &c. 

MAKUA  (]Mo§ambique). 

AYRES  DE  CARVALHO  (Soveral).  Breve  estudo  sobre  a  ilha  de  Mozam- 
bique acompanhado  d'um  pequeno  vocabulario  Portuguez-Macua.  31  pp. 
Svo.     1887.     2s. 

MAPLES  (C).  Collections  for  a  Handbook  of  the  Makua  Language.  100  pp. 
small  Svo.  cloth.     No  date  (1879).     2s.  M. 

RANKIN  (D.  J.).  Arab  Tales.  Translated  from  the  Swahili  Language  into 
the  Tugulu  Dialect  of  the  Makua  Lauguage,  as  spoken  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  Mozambique.  Together  with  comparative  vocabularies  of  five 
Dialects  of  the  Makua  Language.  Cr.  Svo.  boards,  pp.  xv.  and  46.  1887. 
3s.  M. 


ABINAL  et  MALZAC.      Dictionnaire  malgache-franzais.     815  pp.  Svo.  half 

calf.     1888.     £1  5s. 
COUSINS  (W.   E.).     A  concise  Introduction  to  the  study  of  the  Malagasy 

Language,  as  spoken  in  hnerina.     Third  edition,  enlarged,     pj).  iv.  and  80, 

Svo.  cloth.     1894.     5s. 
DALMOND.     Vocabulaire  et  grammaire  pour  les  langues  malgaches,  sakalave 

et  betsimitsara.     142  pp.  small  4to.     1842.     16s. 
Vocabulaire  fran^.-malgache,  .suivi  d'une  petite  grammaire  et  de  traductions 

littt'rales  malgache-franc. 
ENGLISH  and  Malagasy  Vocabulary,  with  sentences  in  both  languages  illus- 
trating  the   words   used  in   the    Vocabulary.      Compiled   by  three  native 

officials.     476  pp.  Svo   half  calf.     1863.     10s.  U. 

Kegan  Paul,  Tr&iwh,  Triibner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charivri  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catcdogue  No.  X. 

African  Languages — Mande,  Masai,  Mashowi,  Matahele.        19 

KESSLER  (J.).  Introduction  to  the  Language  and  Literature  of  Madagascar, 
with  hints  to  travellers,  and  a  map.    90  pp.  small  8vo.  cloth.    1870.    4s.  6c?. 

MAR  RE    (A.).     Grammaire  malgache  suivie  de  nombreux  exercices.      Second 

edition.     155  and  xxiv.  pp.  small  Bvo.  boards.     1894.     5s. 
Vocabulaire  fraucais-malgache.     391  pp.  Bvo.  boards.     1895.     8s. 

PARKER  (G.  W.).     Concise  Grammar  of  the  Malagasy  Language,     pp.  66, 
with  an  Appendix,  crown  8vo.  cloth.     1883.     5s. 
Forms  a  volume  of  "Triibner's  Collection  of  Simplified  Grammars." 

RAHIDY  (B. ).    Cours  pratique  de  langue  malgache.    In  3  vols,  small  8vo.  cloth. 
Vol.  I.     Grammaire.     103  pp.     1895.     3s.  M. 
Vol.     II.      Dialogues    usuels    et    vocabulaire    francais-malgache.       291    pp. 

1895.     4s. 
\o\.  III.     Exercices  et  vocabulaire  malgache-fran9ais.     142  pp.     1895.     4s. 

RICHARDSON  (J.).  Malagasy  for  Beginners  :  a  series  of  Graduated  Lessons 
and  Exercises  in  Malagasy,  as  spoken  by  the  Hovas.  120  pp.  8vo.  cloth. 
1884.     4s. 

RICHARDSON  (Rev.  J.).  New  Malagasy-English  Dictionary.  Edited  and 
re-arranged,     lix.  and  832  pp.  half  bound,  8vo.     1885.     £1. 

SARDA  (P.).     Petit  dictionuaire  malgache-francais,  precede  des  principes  de 

gi-ammaire  hova  et  suivi  des  phrases  et  expressions  usuelles.   32  and  150  pp. 

small  8vo.     1896.     2s.  Qd. 
SEWELL  (J.  S.).     English-Malagasy  Dictionary.     380  pp.  Bvo.  cloth.     1875. 

12s.  M. 
VOCABULAIRE  fran9ais-malgache  redige  par  les  Missionau-es  Catholiques  a 

I'usage  de  leurs  eleves  qui  apprennent  le  fran5ais.     jjp.   418,  8vo.   cloth. 

1880.     10s. 
New  edition  of  1894,  8vo.  cloth.     £1  5s. 

MANDE   (SouDAx). 

RAM  BAUD  (J.  B.).     Dictionuaire  francais-mande.     131  pp.  Bvo.     1896.     5s. 
Avec  une  introduction  sur  la  langue  mande  et  les  caracteres  distinctifs  de  cette 

langue  et  de  ses  divers  dialectes  et  avec  un  abrege  de  grammaire  mande. 
STEINTHAL  (H.).    Die  Mande-Negcr-Sprachen  psychologisch  und  phonetisch 

betrachtet.     pp.  xxiv.  and  344,  royal  Bvo.     1867.     6s. 


ERHARDT  (Rev.  J.).  Vocabulary  of  the  Euguduk  Iloigob,  as  spoken  by  the 
Masai  Tribes  in  East  Africa,     pp.  110,  8vo.  cloth.     1857.     2s.  6f/. 

MASHONA,  or  SHUNA   {South-East  Africa). 

HARTMANN  (Rev.  A.  M.).     Outline  of  a  grammar  of  the  Mashona  language. 

vii.  and  69  pp.  post  Bvo.  cloth,     1893.     5s. 
English-Mashona  Dictionary,  with  appendix  of  some  phrases.     78  pp. 

12mo.  cloth.     1894.     6s. 

MATABELE  and  MAKALAKA   (South-East  Africa). 

ELLIOTT  (W.  A.).    Dictionary  of  the  Tebele  and  Shuna  languages,   xxxiii.  and 

441  pp.  Bvo.  cloth.     1897.     10s.  M. 
WEALE  (M.  E.).     Matabele  and  Makalaka  vocabulary,  intended  for  the  use  of 

prospectors  and  farmers  in  Mashonaland.     32  pp.  12mo.  cloth.     1893.     5s. 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Trilhner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Cha^-iwj  Cross  Ro'id,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

20      African  Lamjuages — Mnurifiiit^,  Mi(.<///i-,  Mirawha.  Nagoe. 

BAISSAC  (C. ).  Etiule  sur  lo  patois  cruole  niaurii'ieu.  !233  p}!.  small  8vo. 
1880.     bs. 

MUSUK   (SroKEN  South  of  the  Tshad  T.ake). 

MULLER  i,F. ).  Die  IMusukspiachu  in  Central  Africa  luifli  dcu  Aufzeiehnungcn 
von  G.  A.  Krausc  hcrausgcgebcn,  niit  dcni  Musuk-dtnitsuliem  Vocaliular  unii 
einer  Kartc.     70  pp.  8vo.     1886.     2s.  M. 

MWAMBA   (North  of  Lake  Nyassa). 

BAIN  (J.  A.).  Collections  of  the  Mwaniba  language  spoken  at  the  north  end 
of  Lake  Nyassa.     32  pp.  r2mo.     1891.     2s. 

NAGOE   (Sub-Dialect  of  Dahomy). 

BOUCHE  (P.).  Etude  sur  la  langue  Nago  (Yorul)a).  51  pp.  8vo.  1880. 
2s.  Gd. 


(Hottentots  of  the  South-Weht  Coast). 

CHARENCEY  (H.  de).    Elements  de  la  grammaire  hottentote  (dialecte  Nama). 

20  lip.  8vo.     1864.     2s. 
HAHN  (Th.).     Die  Sprache  der  Nama.     52  pp.  8vo.     1870.     2s.  6f^. 

KRCENLEIN  (J.  G.).  Wortschatz  der  Khoi-Klioiu  (Naniaqua-Hottentottcn). 
Koy.  Svo.  pp.  vi.  and  350.     1889.     £1  5s. 

OLPP  (J.).     Nama-Deutsches  Woerterbuch.     118  pp.  Svo.  cloth.     1888.     3s. 

SCHILS  (G.  H.).  Grammaire  complete  de  la  langue  des  Namas.  xxi.  and 
94  pp.  large  4to.     1891.     15s. 

Dictionnaire  etymologique  de  la  langue  des  Namas.     106  pp.    4to. 

1895.     £\  Is. 

WALLMANN  (J.  C).  Formenlehre  der  Namaqua-Spraohe.  95  pp.  8vo. 
1857.     3s. 

NGrONI    (South  Bank  of  the  Zambesi). 

ELMSLIE  (W.  A.).  Introductory  grammar  of  the  Ngoni  (Zulu)  language,  as 
spoken  in  Mombera's  country.     51  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1891.     5s. 

Table  of  Concords  and  Paradigm  of  Verb  of  the  Ngoni  language,  as 

spoken  in  Mombera's  country.    Large  folio,  folded  in  book  form.    1891.    6s. 


(Identic  with  Nyanja,  for  which  see). 

COLOMBAROLI  (A.).  Premiers  Elements  de  Langue  A-Sandeh  (vulgaire- 
ment  appelee  Niam-Niam.     99  pp.  8vo.     1895.     4s. 

NIKA,  or  MA-NIKA,  or  NYIKA 

(East  Coast  of  Africa,  Two  Degrees  South  of  Pokomo  Kivbr). 

KRAPF  (L.)and  REBMANN  (J.).  A  Nika- English  Dictionary.  Edited  by 
T.  H.  Sparshott.     pp.  viii.  and  391,  Svo.  cloth.     1887.     10s.  Qd. 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Trnbner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 

Charing  Cro-^s  Rourl,  London :   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

African  Laiujuages — Nubian,  Nupe,  Nijamwezi,  Nyanja.       21 


(Xile-Valley  from  the  Tropic  of  Cancer  to  the  Frontier 
OF  Abyssinia). 

LEPSIUS  (R.).     Nubische  Grammatik.     Mit  Einleitung  tiber  die  Volker  und 
Spraclien  Afrika  s.  8vo.  clotb,  pp.cxxvi.and506.  1880.  (Pub.  £1  6s.)  £1  Is. 
REINISCH  (L.).     Die  Nuba  Spraehe. 
Vol.  I.     Grammatik  und  Texte.     308  pp.  8vo.     1879.     7s.  M. 
Vol.  II.     Nubisch-deutsehes  uud  deutsch-nubisches  Woerterbueh.     240  pp. 
8vo.     1879.     7s.  U. 

NUPE   (Basin  of  the  Quorra). 

GROWTH ER  (S.).     Primer  of  the  Nupe  Language,     pp.  22.  small  8vo.  limp 

cloth.     1860.     Is.  Qd. 
Elements   of  a  Grammar  and   Vocabulary  of  the   Nupe   Language. 

208  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1864.     6s. 
J[OHNSON]*(H.).     Nupe  Reading  Book  for  the  use  of  schools.     48  pp.  8vo. 

1882.     Is   M. 


STEER E  (Ed.).     Collections  for  a  Handbook  of  the  Nyamwezi  Language  as 
spoken  at  Unyanyembe.     99  pp.  small  8vo.  cloth.     (No  date.)     Is.  Qd. 


(Bantu  Language  spoken  S.  and  S.-W,  of  Lake  Nyassa). 

CALDWELL  (R).     Chi-Nyanja  Simplified.     Second  Edition.     88  and  46  pp. 

r2mo.  cloth.     1897.     2s.  M. 
HENRY   (G. ).     Grammar  of  the  Chinyanja  [spoken  near  the  shores  of  Lake 

Nyassa].     232  pp.  post  8vo.     1891.     9s. 
LAWS    (R.).      Table  of  Concords  and  Paradigm  of  verbs  of  the  Chinyanja 

language  (Lake  Nyassa).     Large  folio,  folded  in  book  form.     1885.     5s. 
English-Nyanja  Dictionary,  with  a  table  of  Concords  of  the  Chinyanja 

langiiage.     231  pp.  post  8vo.  cloth.     1894.     7s.  M. 
RIDDEL  (A.).     A  Grammar  of  the  Chinyanja  language  as  spoken  at  Lake 

Nyassa,    with    Chinyanja-English    and    English-Chinyanja    Vocabularies. 

150  pp.  small  8vo.     1880.     Out  of  print.     6s. 
SCOTT  (Rev.   D.    C).     Cyclopredic   Dictionary  of  the   Mang'anja   language 

(usually    called   Nyanja),    spoken   in   British   Central   Africa   [Mang'anja- 

English  and  English-Mang'anja].     737  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1892.     12s.  6(/. 
[F.  A.  R.]    Vocabulary  of  English-Chinyanja  and  Chinyanja-English,  as  spoken 

at  Likoma,  Lake  Nyasa.     2nd  edition.     88  pp.  Avith  table  of  Concords, 

small  8vo.  limp  cloth.     1895.     Is.  6d. 

OSHIKUANJAMA  (German  South- West  Africa). 

BRINCKER  (P.  H.).    Lehrbuch  des  Oshikuanjama  [Bantu-Sprache  in  Deutsch 

Sued  west- Afrika]. 
Vol.  I.     Grammatik  des  Oshikuanjama  in  Verbindung  mit  Oshiudonga  und 

mit  Vergleichungdes  Otjiherero.     118  pp. 
Vol.  II.     Woerterbueh  des  Oshikuanjama  mit  Vergleichung  des  Oshindonga 

und  Otjiherero  in  zwei  Thcilen  sachlich-gcordnet.     136  pp. 
Two  vols.  l)ound  in  one.     8vo.  clotli.     1891.     16s. 
Forms   Vol.    VIII.    of   the    "  Lehrbuecher  des   Seminars   fuer   orientalische 

Sprachen  zu  Berlin." 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Trilbner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London :  Oriental  Catalojue  No.  X. 

22      A/ri'-aii  LaiKjtnKjcs — Poikjicc,  Qiiarix,  Jionga^Sa'jdra,  Salio. 


(FmcNoii   AVestehn   Akkica,  lirrwEEN   the  Senegal  and  Gambia). 

(.iKAMM  AR  of  the  M]ioiij^'\vc  Language,  with  Vocabularies.  L5y  tlie  Missionaries 
of  the  A.B.C.F.M.  Gaboon  Mission,  Western  Africa,  pp.  94,  8vo.  Scarce. 
1847.     10s.  6iL 

DELORME  (A.).  Dictionnairc  franoais-pongoue  j)ar  les  missiounaires  de  la 
Congivgation  rlu  St.  Esju-it.     354  pp.  8vo.     1877.     10s. 

GACHON.  Dictionnairc  pongouc-franeais,  jirccwlc  dcs  jirincipcs  dc  la  langue 
IHUigouio  par  les  niissionnaircs  de  la  Congregation  du  St.  Esprit,  xxxix.  and 
•J88  pp.  8vo.     1881.     8s. 

LE  BERRE.  Granimaire  de  la  langue  pongouce  (parlee  an  Gabon  et  au 
S.'nOgal).     pp.  223,  8vo.     1873.     6s. 

LEJEUNE  (Pere).  Dictionnaire  fran9ais-fangou  pahouin  precede  de  quelques 
principes  grammaticaux  sur  cette  nienie  langue.  347  pp.  8vo.  half  calf, 
1892.     10s. 

QUARA  (Abyssinia). 

REINISCH  (L.).  Die  Quara-sprachc  in  Abessinien.  3  parts,  8  vo.  1885-87.  7s.6d. 

RONGA,  or  SHIRONGA,   the  language  of  the  Shangani. 

(Delagoa  Bay). 

JUNOD  (H.  A.).  Abecedaire  et  livre  de  lecture  en  dialect  ronga  (Baie  de 
Dflagoa).     94  pp.  12mo.  cloth.     1894.     2s. 

Granimaire  ronga,  suivie  d'un  manuel  de  conversation  et  d'uu  vocaliu- 

laire  ronga-portugais-fran9ais-anglais.     308  pp.  large  8vo.     1896.     5s. 

SMITH-DELACOUR  (E.  W.).  A  Shironga  vocabulary:  or  word-book  on  the 
language  of  the  natives  in  the  district  of  Delagoa  Bay.  31  pp.  8vo. 
189"3.     4s. 

SAGARA,  or  MEGI,  or  KGURU  (Bantu  Language,  jSTorth 
OF  LuFiji  RivEK,  East  Equatorial  Africa). 

LAST  (J.  T. ).  Grammar  of  the  Kaguru  Language  (Eastern  Equatorial  Africa). 
Small  8vo.  cloth,  pp.  147.     1886.     2s. 


REINISCH  (L.).  Die  Sprache  der  Irob-Saho  in  Abessinien,  56  pp.  8vo. 
1878.     Is.  6'/. 

REINISCH  (L.).     Saho-Sprache. 
Vol.  I. — Texte  der  Saho  Sprache  mit  deutscher  Uebersetzung.     315  m.  8vo. 

1889.     8s. 
Vol.  IL— Saho-Deutsches  Woerterbuch.    492  pp.  8vo.     1890.     £1  4s. 

SHAMBAA,  or  SHAMBALA  (German  East  Africa). 

SEIDEL  (A.).  Handbuch  der  Sliambala  Sprache  in  Usambara.  With  texts 
ill  Shamliala,  and  a  German-Shambala  and  Shanibala-German  vocabulary. 
140  pp.  8vo.     1895.     5s. 

WOHLRAB  and  JOHANSEN.  Shambaa  Lcsefibel.  48  pp.  small  8vo. 
1892.     Is.  6d. 

Kegan  Paul,   Trench,  Triihner  aiid  Co..,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

African  Languages — Somali,  Susou,  Swdhili.  23 


(From  the  Straits  of  BIb  el  Maxdal,  Round  by  Cape 
GuARDAFUi,  Down  to  the  4°  Southern  Latitude). 

LIGHT  (R.  H  ).     Euglisli-Somali  Sentences  and  Idioms  for  the  use  of  sportsmen 
and  visitors  in  Somaliland.     23  pp.  small  8vo.     1896.     2s. 
Printed  in  Roman  characters  only. 

LARAJASSE  (de).     Somali -English  and  English-Somali  Dictionary.    301  pp. 
8vo.  cloth.     1897.     12s. 

and  CYPRIEN  DESAMPONT.     Practical  Somali  Grammar,  with 

a  manual  of  sentences.     265  j^p.  8vo.  cloth.     1897.     12s. 

Both  works  are  printed  in  Roman  characters  only. 
SCHLEICHER   (A.   W.).     Die   Somali   Sprache,    L     Text,  Lautlehre,    For- 
menlehre  und  Syntax,     xvi.  and  159  pp.  8vo.     1892.     Qs. 
Part  II.  will  never  be  published,  as  the  author  died  in  Africa. 

SUSOO,  or  SOSO  (Mandingo  Dialect  of  Senegambia). 

DOUGLIN  (Rev.  P.  H.).     A  Reading  Book  in  the  Soso  Language,     pp.  viii. 

and  120,  small  8vo.  cloth.     1887.     2s.  M. 
DUPORT    (J.   H.).     Outlines  of  a  Grammar   of  the   Susu   Language  (West 

Africa),     pp.  28,  8vo.     No  date  (1882).     Is.  U. 
ENDEMANN    (K.).      Versuch  einer  Grammatik  des  Sotho.     201   pp.   8vo. 

1876.     6s. 
Printed  in  Roman  characters  only. 
OUTLINES  of  a  Grammar  in  the  Susu  Language.     8vo.  sewed.     Is.  Qd. 
RAIMBAULT.     Dictiounaire  fran9ais-soso  et  soso-fran9ais.     pp.  x.  and  165, 

small  8vo.  cloth.     1885.     7s.  Gd. 

BUETTNER  (C.  G.).     Suaheli-deutsch  und  deutsch-suaheli  AVoerterbuch.    ix. 
and  269  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1890.     13s.  6d. 
Forms  A'^ol.  III.  of  the  "  Lehrlnicher  des  Seminars  fur  orientalische  Sprachen 
zu  Berlin." 

Suaheli-Schriftstiicke,  in  Arabic  and  Roman  characters,  Avitli  German 

translation  and  notes,     xi.  and  206  and  73  pp.  and  11  lithographic  plates, 
8vo.     1892.     £1  2s.  Qd. 
Forms  Vol.  X.  of  the  "Lehrbiicher  des  Seminars  fiir  orientalische  Sprachen  zu 

• Lieder  und  Geschichten  der  Suaheli  [in  German,  being  the  second  vol. 

of  the  "  Suaheli  Anthologie,"  by  the  same  author].    202  pp.  8vo.    1894.    4s. 
Anthologie   aus  der  Suaheli-Litteratur   (Gedichte  und  Geschichten). 

Vol.  I.  Swahili  text  in  Roman  characters.     Vol.   II.  German  translation. 

188  and  202  pp.  in  one  voL  8vo.     1894.     18s. 
DAULL.     Grammaire  kisouahili.     125  pp.  12mo.  bound.     1879.     2s.  Qd. 
DELAUNAy.     Grammaire  kiswahili.     173  p^x  small  8vo.  boards.     1885.     6s. 
KRAPF  (L.).      Outline  for  the   Elements   of  the   Kisuaheli   Language,  with 

sjiecial  reference  to  the  Kinika  dialect.     142  p]).  8vo.  cloth.     1850.     7s.  Qd. 
Dictionary  of  the  Suahili  Language.     With  Introduction  containing 

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(Pub.  £1  10s.)     10s.  M. 
M ADAN  (A.  C. ).    English-Swahili  Vocabulary,  compiled  from  the  Works  of  the 

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Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Triihner  and  Co.,  Limited,  Paternoster  House, 
Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

24  Africafi  Lamjxiages — Taita. 

MADAN  (A.  C.)-  English -Swaliili  Dictionary,  ennipiled  for  the  use  of  the 
Uiiivorsities  Mission  to  Central  Africa,     vi.  and  415  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1894. 

NETTELBLADT  (F.  v.).    Snaheli  Dragoman,    xii.  and  '2.5(5  pp.  Svo.   1891.  f)s. 
C'oNTKNTs. — Oespniche,  Worterbuch  und  praktischc  Anleituugen  zuni  Verkehr 

niit  don  Eingoborcnon  in  Deutsch  Ost-Afrika,  mit  Vorwort  von    L.   von 

RADDATZ  (11.).     Die  Suahili-Sprache  mit  cineni  Anhange :  Sudan-Arabisch 

iind  KinfiUnung  indie  Ikntusprachcn.    xiv.  and  176  pp.  Svo.    1892.    3.s.  Qd, 

SACLEUX  (Ch.).     Dictionnaire  francais-swahili.     989  and  40  pp    post  Svo. 
half  calf.     1891.     £1  Is. 
Added  is :  Catalogue  des  plantes  de  Zauiiibar,  Peniba,  Monibassa,  Anion,  &c. 

SAINT  PAUL  ILLAIRE  (AV.).      Suaheli  Handbuch.      202  pp.  Svo.   cloth. 
1890.     10s.  U. 
Forms  Vol.  II.  of  the  "  Lehrbucher  des  Seminars  fiir  orientalische  Sprachen." 
Swahili  Sprachfuhrer.     575  pp.  Svo.  cloth.     1896.     10s. 

SEIDEL   (A.).      Praktisclie   Granmiatik   der   Sualieli-Sprache,    mit   Uebungs- 
stuecken,    einem    Lesebuchc   und   einem    deutsch-kisuaheli   Woerterbuchc. 
18-2  pp.  r2mo.  cloth.     No  date  (1896).     2s.  Qd. 
Forms  Vol.  XXXII.  of  the  "  Kunst  der  Polyglottie. " 

STEERE  (E. ).  Handbook  of  the  Swahili  Language,  as  spoken  at  Zanzibar. 
Fourth  edition.  Revised  and  enlarged  by  A.  C.  Madan.  Svo.  pp.  xxii.  and 
458.     1894.     (Pub.  at  6s.)     4s. 

Swahili  Exercises,     pp   viii.  and  118.     Svo.  boards.     1886.     2s.  Qd. 

Swahili  Tales  as  told  by  natives  of  Zanzibar,  Swahili  text  with  trans- 
literation in  Roman  characters,  an  English  translation,  and  notes,  xvi. 
and  501  pp.  post  Svo.     N.D.  (1889).     5s. 

SVLLABAIRE  swahili.     64  pp.  12mo.     1893.     2s. 

TAYLOR  (W.  E.).  African  AphorLsms  ;  or,  Saws  from  Swahililand  collected, 
translated,  and  annotated.     Svo.  cloth.     3s. 



WRAY  (J.  A.).  Elementary  Introduction  to  the  Taita  Language  [Eastern 
Equatorial  Africa].     128  ])i).  12mo.  cloth.     1894.     2s. 

TAMASHEK,  or  TUWARIK  (Nomadic  Tribes,  Western  Sahara). 

FREEMAN  (H.  S.).  Grammatical  Sketch  of  the  Temahuq  or  Towarek 
Language.     47  pp.  Svo.  cloth,  out  of  print.     1862.     5s. 

HANOTEAU  (A.).  Essai  de  grammaire  de  la  langue  Tamachek  (Touareq) 
2icme  edition,  renfermant  les  principes  dvi  langage  parle  par  les  Imouchar 
ou  Touareg,  des  conversations  en  Tamashek,  des  facsimile  d'ecritiu-e  en 
caracteres  Tifnar  et  une  carte  indiquant  les  parties  de  I'Algerie  ou  la  langue 
berbere  est  encore  en  usage.     31,  299  pp.  Svo.     1896.     15s. 

KAOUI  (S.  Cid.).  Dictionnaire  franeais-tamaheq  (langue  des  Touaregs).  894  pp. 
4to.  lithograi)hed.     1894.     £2  2's. 

MASQUERAY  (E. ).  Dictionnaire  fran9ais-touareg  (dialecte  des  Taitoq) 
suivi  d'observations  grammaticales.  Parts  1  to  3  (as  far  as  published), 
pp.  1-362.  Svo.     1893-95.     6s.  each  part. 

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Charing  Cross  Road,  London:   Oriental  Catalogue  No,  X. 

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MASQUERAY  (E.).  Observations  grammaticales  sur  la  grammaire  Touareg 
et  textes  de  la  Tamahaq  dcs  Taitoq,  publics  par  R.  Basset  et  Gaudefroy- 
Demombynes.     Part  I.  96  pp.  8vo.     1896.     5s. 

TEMNE  (Sierra  Leone,  West  Africa). 

ELBA  (A.  A.)  and  COLE  (E.  T.).  Tenuie  Reading  Book.  32  pp.  12mo.  limp 
caoth.     1892.     Is.  M. 

KNOEDLER  (C).  A  Temne  Primer  for  the  use  of  Temne  Schools  in  West 
Africa.     20  jip.  12mo.     1865.     Is.  M. 

SCHLENKER  (Rev.  C.  ¥.).  Grammar  of  the  Temne  Language.  8vo.  cloth. 
1864.     7s.  M. 

An  English-Temne  Dictionary,     pp.  viii.  and  403,  8vo.  cloth.     1880. 

10s.  Qd. 

A  Collection  of  Temne  Traditions,  Fables,   and  Proverbs,  Avith   an 

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Compositions  and  Translations.  To  which  is  appended  a  Temne-English 
Vocabulary,     pp.  xxii.  and  298,  8vo.  cloth.     1861.     6s. 


BUTE  (Marquess  of).  On  the  Ancient  Language  of  the  Natives  of  Tenerifie. 
8vo.     1891.     2s. 


(Sejiitic  Language  North  of  the  River  Takazz^,  in  Abyssinia), 

BEURMANN  (M.  von).  Vocabulary  of  the  Tigre  Language,  -with  a  gram- 
matical sketch  by  A.  Merx.     viii.  and  78  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1868.     2s.  Gel. 

CAMPERIO  (M.).  Manuale  tigre-italiano  con  due  dizionarietti  italiano-tigre 
and  tigre-italiano  e  cartina  dimostrativa  degliidiomi  parlati  in  Eritrea.  177 
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MUNZINGER  (W.).     Vocabnlaire  de  la  langue  tigre  [Tigre-Frencli].      8vo. 
pp.  X.  and  93.     1865.     3s. 
The  Tigre  words  are  \vi'itten  in    Ethiopian  characters,  with   Roman   trans- 

PERINI  (R.).  Manuale  teorico-iu-atico  della  lingua  tigre.  122  pp.  8vo. 
1893.     3s.  M. 

PRAETORIUS  (F.).     Grammatik  der  Tigrina  Sprache  in  Abessinien,  liaupt- 
saechlich  in  der  Gegend  von  Aksuni  und  Adoa.     Two  parts.     367  pp.  8vo. 
1871-72.     (Pub.  at  13s.  Qd.)     10s. 
All  Tigrina  words  are  i)rinted  in  Ethiopian  characters. 

SCHREIBER  (J.).     Manuel  de  la  langue  tigrai.     Parlee  au  centre  et  dans  Ic 
nord  de  I'Abyssinie. 
Vol    L     pp.  iv.  and  93,  8vo.     1887.     Qs. 

Vol.  IL  Contents. — Tigrai  texts  with  French  translation,  notes,  and  a  Tigrai- 
French  vocabulary,     pp.  94-227,  8vo.     1893.     8s. 

VITO    (L.   de).     Grammatica  elenientare  della  lingua  tigrigna.      87  pp.   8yo. 

1895.     5s. 
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Esercizi  di  lettura  in  lingua  tigrigna.     69  pp.  8vo.  cloth.     1894.     55. 

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'2G     African  Lamjuatjes—Tumhuka,  Ihnhnndu,  Va!,  Wulof,  Xosa. 


(Language  of  the  People  Living  in   Suujection  to  the  Ngoni, 

ox  the  AVest  Side  of  the  Lake  Nyassa). 
ELMS  LIE  (W,  A.).     Table  of  Concords  and  jiavadigni  of  verbs  of  the  Tunibuka 
I.aiimiaj^o  (as  sjwkeii  in  Monibcra's  country).     Large  folio,  folded  in  book 
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(Thk  Language  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Bailundu  and  Bihe,  and 

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SANDERS  (W.  H.).     Unibnndu-English  and  English-Umbundu  Vocabulary, 

rontaining  a  list  of  3000  words.     76  pp.  12mo.  boards.     1885.     7s.  M. 
STOVER  (W.  II.).     Observations  upon  the  grammatical  structure  and  use  of 
the  Umbundu.     83  pp.  12nio.  boards.     1885.     7s.  U. 

VAI,  or  VEI 

(Spoken  on  the  Banks  of  the  Gallina  River,  and  at  Cape  Mount, 
in  the  Liberian  Republic). 

KOELLE  (S.  AV.).  Outlines  of  a  Grammar  of  the  Vei  Language,  together 
with  a  Vei-English  Vocabulary.  With  Appendix:  an  Account  of  the 
Discovery  and  Nature  of  the  Vei  Mode  of  Syllabic  Writing.  8vo.  cloth, 
pp.  256.     Out  of  print.     Scarce.     1854.     10s.  &d. 

WOLOF   (Senegambia,  "West  Africa). 

BOILAT.     Grammaire  de  la  langue  woloffe.     430  pp.  roy.  8vo.     1858.     15s. 

DARD  (J.).  Grammaire  wolofe  ;  ou,  methode  pour  etudier  la  langue  des 
noirs  qui  habitent  les  royaumes  de  Bourba-Yolof,  de  Walo,  de  Darnel,  de 
Hour-Sine,  de  Saloume,  de  Baole,  en  Senegambie  ;  suivie  d'un  appendicc, 
oil  sont  etablies  les  particularites  les  plus  essentielles  des  principales  langues 
de  I'Afrique  Septentriouale.     pp.  x.  xxii.  and  214.     Svo.  cloth.     1826.     6s. 

Dictionnaire  francais-wolof  et  fran9ais-bambara,  suivi  du  dictionnaire 

wolof-fran9ais.     xxxii.  and  300  pp.  8vo.     1825.     5s. 

KOBES  (A.).  Grammaire  de  la  langue  volofe.  vi.  and  360  pp.  Svo.  St. 
Joscjyh  de  Ngasohil,  1869.     Scarce.     £1  Is. 

ROGER  (de).  Recherches  philosophiques  sur  la  langue  ouolofe  suivies  d'un 
vocabulaire  abrege  fran9ais-ouoloff.     pp.  173,  8vo.     1829.     2s.  Gd. 

XOSA,  or  K  FIR. 
BONATZ  (T.  A.).     Anleitung  zur  Erlernung  der  Katfer-Sprache  nach  T.  W. yard's  Grammatik.     pp.  xii.  and  292,  Svo.     1862.     6s. 
CRAWSHAW  (J.).    First  Kafir  course.    Second  Edition.     133  pp.  Svo.  boards. 

1S94.     5s. 
McLAREN    (J.).      Introductory   Kafir   Grammar   with   progressive   exercises. 

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NAGEL  (E.).     Prakt.     HlUfsbuch  der  Kaferu-Sprache.     Zur  leichteren  Ver- 

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1887.     Is.  6d. 

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Charing  Cross  Road,  London:  Oriental  Catalogue  No.  X. 

African  Languages — Tao,  Yoruba,  Zulu-Kafir.  27 


(South  and  East  of  the  Lake  Nyassa,  as  far  as  the  Coast). 

HYNDE  (R,  S.).  Second  Yao-English  primer.  104  pp.  12mo.  cloth.  1894. 
Is.  6d. 

MAPLES  (Ch. ).  Yao-English  Vocabulary,  compiled  from  various  sources. 
114  pp.  small  8vo.     1888.     5s. 

STEERE  (E.).  Collections  for  a  Handbook  of  the  Yao  Language.  105  pp. 
8 vo.  cloth.     1871.     25. 

YORUBA   (Eastern  Half  of  the  Slave  Coast). 

BO  WEN  (T.  J.).  Grammar  and  Dictionary  of  the  Yoruba  Language,  with  an 
Introductory  Description  of  the  Country  and  People  of  Yoruba.  4to  pp. 
228,  w-ith  a  map.     1858.     Out  of  print.     £1  5s. 

CROWTHER  (S.).    English- Yoruba  and  Yoruba-English  vocabulary,    vii.  and 
48  and  196  pp.  8vo.  half  calf.     1843.     6s. 
No  titlepage  to  this  edition  was  ever  printed. 

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pp.  viii.  and  38  and  292.     1852.     6s. 

RABAN  (J.).  The  Eyo  Vocabulary  (Dialect  of  Yoruba).  Part  IL  Contents.— 
Alphabet,  Verbs,  Nouns,  Phrases.  Sentences,  and  English-Eyo  Vocabulary. 
36  pp.  12mo.     Scarce.     1832.     2s.  6d. 

WOOD  (J.  B.).  Notes  on  construction  of  the  Yoruba  language.  48  i)p.  8vo. 
1879.     Is.  6d. 

ZULU-KAFIR.     (See  also  under  "Ngonl") 

AMBROSIUS.  Grammatik  der  Zulu-Kaffirischen  Sprache.  210  pp.  8vo. 
1890.     10s. 

BOYCE  (W.  B.).  Grammar  of  the  Kafir  Language.  54  pp.  4to.  1834.  Very 
scarce.     15s. 

The  same.     Second  Edition,  augmented  and  improved  by  vocabulary 

and  exercises  by  "\V.  J.  Davis.     228  pp.  8vo.     1844.     9s. 

COLENSO  (J.  W. ).  First  Steps  in  Zulu:  being  an  elementary  grammar 
of  the  Zulu  language.  Fourth  Edition.  161  pp.  small  8vo.  1890. 
7s.  6rf. 

Zulu-English  Dictionary.     552  pp.  8vo.  half  calf.     1861.     6s. 

Zulu-English   Dictionary.      Second    Edition,   revised   and   enlarged. 

673  pp.  small  8vo.  cloth.     1884.     12s. 

DOHNE  (T.  L.).  Zulu -Kafir  Dictionary,  etymologically  explained,  with 
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Zulu-Kafir  language,  pp.  xlii.  and  418,  royal  8vo.  Out  of  print.  1857. 
£1  Is. 

GIBBS  (S.).  Easy  Zulu  Vocabulary  and  Phrase-book,  with  grammatical 
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28  Africnn  Languages — Zulu- Kafir. 

GROUT  (L.).  Tho  Isizulu:  a  graniinar  of  the  Zulu  lauj^iuige,  with  a  historical 
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MATE  (Ph.).  Kleines  deutsch-kalihischcs  Wiirterbuch.  173  pj).  small  Svo. 
bound.     1891.     3s. 

NG'UNEMO,  Isigania,  i.e.,  English-Katir  Vocabulary.  219  pp.  Svo.  cloth. 
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PERRIN'S  English-Zulu  Dictionary.  Fourth  Edition,  revised  and  enlarged. 
334  pp.  12mo.  cloth.     1890.     4s. 

ROBERTS  (Ch.).  English-Zulu  Dictionary,  with  the  principles  of  pronun- 
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r2mo.  cloth.     1879.     Out  of  print.     6s. 

SCHREUDER  (H.  P.  S.).  Grammatik  der  Zulu-Sproget.  Fortale  og  anmaerk- 
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AFRICA  AND  THE  AMERICAN  NEGRO.  Addresses  and  Proceedings  of 
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242  pp.  text,  with  numerous  illustrations,  Svo.     1896,     7s.  Qd. 

BIRD  (J.).     Annals  of  Natal.     1495  to  1845.     2  vols.     732  and  484  pp.  royal 
Svo.  cloth.     1888.     £2. 
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permission  of  the  Secretary  of  State. 

BURTON  (R.  F.).  Abeokuta  and  the  Cameroons  Mountains:  an  Exploration. 
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CAPE  OF  GOOD  HOPE  ARCHIVES.    Precis,  edited  by  H.  C.  V.  Leibbrandt. 
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DAUMAS  (E. ).  Les  chevaux  du  Sahara  et  les  mccurs  du  de.sert.  New 
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taining a  comparison  of  the  Tshi,  Ga,  Ewe,  and  Yoruba  languages.     402  pp. 
Svo.  cloth.     1894.     (Pub.  10s.  U.)     5s. 
EMIN  PASHA  IN  CENTRAL  AFRICA  :  being  a  collection  of  his  letters  and 
journals.     Edited  and  annotated  by  G.   Schweinfurth,   F.   Ratzel,  R.    W. 
Felkin,  and  G.  Hartlaub.     Translated  by  Mrs.  R.  W.  Felkin.     With  two 
portraits,  a  map,  and  notes,     xviii.  and  547  pp.  large  Svo.  cloth.     1888. 
(Pub.  £1  Is.)     10s.  M. 
FELKIN   (R.  W.).     Geogi-aphical  Distribution  of  Tropical  Diseases  in  Africa, 
with  an  appendix  on  a  new  method  of  illustrating  the  geographical  distri- 
bution of  disease      79  pp.  with  table  and  map,  Svo.  cloth.     1895.     5s. 
HUTTON  (W.).     A  Voyage  to  Africa,  including  a  Narrative  of  an  Embassy 
to  one  of  the  interior  Kingdoms,  in. the  year  1820.     Illusti-ated  with  maps 
and  plates,     x,  and  488  pfi.  large  Svo.  half  calf.     1821.     5s. 
KAUFMANN    (W.).      The  Egyptian  State  Debt  and   its  relation  to  Inter- 
national Law,  ti-auslated  into  English,  with  an  historical  retrospect  since 
1841,  and  numerous  statistics  by  H.  Wallach.   308  pp.  Svo.  cloth.    1892.    Ss. 
KINSKY  (Count  K.).    The  Diplomatist's  Handbook  for  Africa.    106  pp.    With 
a  Political  Map.     Roy.  Svo.  cloth.     1897.  • 
Contains  an  historical  and  statistical  abstract  of  all  states  in  Africa  and  an 
enumeration  of  their  ti-eaties  witli  European  powers. 
KOELLE   (S.   W.).     African  Native  Literature;    or  Proverbs,  Tales,   Fables, 
and  Historical  Fragments  in  the  Kanuri  or  Bornu  Language,  Kanuri  Text, 
with  English  Translation  and  a  Kanuri-English  Vocabulary.     434  pp.  Svo. 
1854.     7s.  M. 
KRAPF    (Rev.    Dr.    T.    L.).      Travels,    Researches,    and   Missionary    Labours 
during  an  Eighteen  Years'  Residence  in  Eastern  Africa.     With  portrait, 
maps,''aud  illustrations  of  scenery  and  costume,     li.  and  566  pp.  large  Svo. 
cloth.     1860.     (Pub.  £1  Is.)     10s.  M. 
MACDONALD  (Rev.  Duff).      Africana  ;   or,  The  Heart  of  Heathen  Africa. 
2  vols,  large  Svo.  cloth.     1882.     (Pub.  £1  Is.)     10s.  U. 
CoxTENT-s.— Vol.  I.     Native  Customs  and  Beliefs,     xvi.  and  301  pp. 
II.     Mission  Life.     ix.  and  371  pp. 
MULLER   CHendrik  P.  N.).     Industrie  des  Cafres  du  Sud-Est  de  I'Afrique. 
Collection  recueillic.  sur  les  licux  et  notice  ethnographifiue  avec  description 
des  objets  represcntes  par  Joh.  F.  Snelleman.     48  pp.  text  with  27  plates 
(some  coloured),  and  music  of  Zambesi  songs.     Small  folio.    1893.    £1  10s. 
PAULITSCHKE  (P.).  .  Die  Africa  Litteratur  in  der  Zeit  von  1500  bis  1750  n. 
Chr.     Ein  Beitrag  zur  geogi-aphischen  (^uellenkunde.     123  pp.  large  Svo. 
1882.     4s.  (Continued  on  page  2  of  cover.) 

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